Advocates File Lawsuit Demanding Federal Government Assess Medical Value Of Cannabis

A coalition of public interest advocacy groups filed suit today in the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia to compel the Obama administration to respond to a nine-year-old petition to reclassify marijuana under federal law.
The suit was filed by attorneys Joe Elford of Americans for Safe Access (ASA) and Michael Kennedy of the NORML Legal Committee on behalf of the Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis (CRC). The Coalition, which includes NORML and California NORML, filed a comprehensive rescheduling petition with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) on October 9, 2002 challenging marijuana’s Schedule I classification as a controlled substance with “no currently accepted medical use” and a “high potential for abuse.” The agency formally accepted the petition for filing on April 3, 2003, and per the provisions of the United States Controlled Substances Act (CSA) referred the petition to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in July 2004 for a full scientific and medical evaluation.
To date, the federal government has not publicly responded to the petition.
Today’s lawsuit petitions the Court for a writ of mandamus “directing the DEA and the Attorney General to issue a full and final determination on petitioners’ Petition to reschedule marijuana, or, alternatively, state whether it will initiate rulemaking proceedings, within 60 days.”
It states: “The DEA’s delay here of more than eight years since the rescheduling Petition was filed — and more than four years since it received HHS’ binding evaluation and recommendations — is inexcusable. … [T]his agency delay in acting on the rescheduling Petition is unreasonable, requiring this Court to intervene.”
Under the CSA, the Attorney General has the authority to reschedule a drug if he finds that it does not meet the criteria for the schedule to which it has been assigned. The Attorney General has delegated this authority to the Administrator of the DEA, presently Michelle Leonhart.
The 2002 CRC petition seeks to reschedule cannabis from its Schedule I designation to a less restrictive class under the CSA “on the grounds that: (1) marijuana does have accepted medical uses in the United States; (2) it is safe for use under medical supervision and has an abuse potential lower than Schedule I and II drugs; and (3) it has a dependence liability that is also lower than Schedule I or II drugs.”
NORML filed a similar rescheduling petition with the DEA in 1972, but was not granted a federal hearing on the issue until 1986. In 1988, DEA Administrative Law Judge Francis Young ruled that marijuana did not meet the legal criteria of a Schedule I prohibited drug and should be reclassified. Then-DEA Administrator John Lawn rejected Young’s determination, a decision the D.C. Court of Appeals eventually affirmed in 1994.
A subsequent petition was filed by former NORML Director in 1995, but was rejected by the DEA in 2001.
Additional information on this suit will appear in this week’s NORML news update. To receive these e-mail updates free, please sign up here.

91 thoughts

  1. 37 BobKat
    1. McCarthy was right! McCarthy T-shirts maybe.
    2. Might as well take “In God we trust” off the money – I doubt if God trusts in the money either. It was only put there to “create trust” in the weak money anyway. Now that there’s no more trust in money – God don’t want to get stuck with the crime – and – I don’t want to stick God with it either.

  2. @44 Nic— I Just signed the petition. Good job!!! 🙂 Keep up the good fight brothers and sisters!!! Peace and love to all!!! NORML CREW—THANKS FOR WHAT YOU DO!!!

  3. Good News: A decent size MMJ case in CA was dropped.
    Bad News: It was dropped not on merits of the case, but due to a bad warrant. (The fruit from a rotten tree argument)
    Full Story from a local source:
    This story points out the obvious that those in power do sometimes abuse it. Take that power away and no abuse would happen.
    Prohibiting something always creates more rule breakers than it stops. Why? It has nothing to do with numbers of users. It’s prohibition itself.
    Extreme Example:
    How many people would be breaking a law against murder if non-existed? None. There wouldn’t be a law to break, but murders would definitely increase in the short term(for lack of repercussions), but also in the long term (due to what would become the standard for justice among heinous crimes, death by vigilante bullet). Over the long term this would balance out, but at what price? Increased fear from those that wouldn’t hurt a fly(Including those that support gun control to the point of making them illegal for a private citizen). Decreased public safety, etc… However, I bet many more people would own a gun for protection and not care about gun laws.
    Where cannabis differs is that complete legalization will lead to and initial “boom” in sales, production, use, etc… but after that it will fall to lower levels. Why? Cannabis is a drug. Not all people “like” drugs. If heroin were legal tomorrow would it have a huge increase in usage? Probably not. Why? Being legal it would be discussed more in the home and at school like cigarettes which have had continued decreasing trend in adult use(cited below). Education works, prohibition doesn’t. At $45 Billion a year, you could hire 1 Million more teachers(at $45K a year). How would this change the student teacher ratio? Answer below.
    Adult Tobacco Use Trends(PDF Link):
    (As of the 2009 Digest of Education Statistics put out by the D. of Education)
    Current K-12 students: 49,293,000
    Current K-12 teachers: 3,178,142
    Current Ratio: 15.7 (That would say 15.51, but you have to discount administrators that aren’t teachers)
    Add a million teachers: 11.79 (based on the calculation that gave 15.51)
    So even considering admins you have a new ratio of about 12:1 versus closer to 16:1. 12:1 would put public schools at about the same ratio as private schools then. They ever think teachers might be overloaded?
    (Note: this doesn’t include money that could be gained by taxing and regulating which would likely go toward treatment rather than prosecution.)
    P.S. Sorry for the long rant, but I hope it was informative.

  4. Nic said (post 48): “In days, a global commission including former heads of state and foreign policy chiefs of the UN, EU, US, Brazil, Mexico and more will break the taboo and publicly call for new approaches including decriminalization and regulation of drugs.”
    Being “the End of the World and All”, and not to rain on Nic, or the parade of others here, but as long as cannabis is so lucrative a business and profitable being illegal, at the cost of “dead citizens” (post 37), it’s HIGHLY unlikely that this commission will be any different from the a charade of so many others. I sure hope I’m wrong, but I hadn’t even heard about this commission until now.
    Knowing President Obama (whom I did vote for willingly), it’ll be a Guinness moment, not that I have anything against Guinness.
    You need only look at CA… 46.5% voted YES to legalize, of those who voted NO, I guarantee, 25% of them have or do use it or grow it. It is NOT possible to judge cannabis based on popular political or public vote… IT IS NOT AN OPINION PIECE! Cannabis is a medicinal plant, from God, scientifically proven safer than legal recreational alternatives, and very beneficial to millions for a wide range of illnesses.
    Common sense as well as science make it a slam dunk case that it should not, and never should have been prohibited. The prohibition of cannabis is very much Unconstitutional. And stupid!

  5. This is not an admission of defeat – far, far from it . Personally – I would rather die on my feet [than] live on my knees. Rather – I would prefer to face reality – the truth. The reality of it is – government will “never give up cannabis “ – there’s too much money in its illegality. The only way we’re going to free cannabis from its “false imprisonment” – is by rule of law – or – the rule of fist. Neither is it the “Fiction of Justice.” This is a fact not fiction – [not a call to arms against our American Brethren]. This is however a grievance against the false and misleading agenda of government. The only way to end this fiasco is to declare religious use – and – fight it out in federal court. The Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 is flawed causing it to be voidable. Let government stand in front of it’s citizens – and – deny God and his Sacrament. Let the people see government spit in God’s eye. It doesn’t matter whether you believe in our Sacrament or not. It doesn’t matter what your political party is – or – your gender, your religion, or your sexual preference. It’s a matter of preserving a Constitutional Right – a religious right. You can – turn your head on pot to protect your freedom.

  6. Our elected officials are cowards. Simple as that. My state had an MM initiative and I wrote my reps and told them about a relative with cancer. Those creeps would not even write me a form letter with the usual lies about “gateway drug” and “sends the wrong message to our children”.
    Since our elected officials are the enemies of freedom, what can we do?
    Move to Oklahoma where you can get life in prison for growing a single plant? Move to Alaska, kinda cold there in the winter.

  7. #48, Sorry, Internet petitions are too easy to spam.
    Write thoughtful comments to your local news sites. People love the comment section after news stories. In the old days the letters to the editor were a popular feature.
    Maybe it will make someone think, maybe not.
    Be honest. Unlike the enemies of freedom.

  8. 56. Love America
    Ya! keep going – until you either reach revolution or salvation.
    “The truth/salvation is in the science/Faith. Faith and science agree here.”
    We agree that it would be in no one’s best interest to make false statements during the period of Scientific Conclusion. That we each put aside what we’ve heard – and what we know – and allow scientific research as evidence and come to Scientific Conclusion that all can abide by. “The truth is in the science and the Faith.”

  9. @54. BobKat
    Public opinion in the bread and butter of getting elected/re-elected. Public opinion does matter. I would argue it matters the most. If %99.9999 didn’t believe murder was wrong. Then there likely wouldn’t be a law against it. I’m not for anarchy as the prior example would mean a kill or be killed world, but rather for minarchy. Government is needed, but they need to focus on protecting people from each other not from themselves. Public Opinion = Votes
    @56. LoveAmerica
    Not all of them and more and more are standing up, but greater and more public(glad to see it brought up at the first GOP primary debate, we are getting more national attention) open debate on the issue is needed. It the very ground swell of public opinion that has slowly encouraged more politicians to take a fresh look at an existing problem.
    2012 will be the year of green in the election seasons! It is an election that will be driven more by people’s wallets and the overall economic picture than issues like foreign policy. I think for the majority of Americans (MJ is high on the priority list as most are non-smokers) it will go: Economy, National Debt/Deficit, then foreign policy(AKA Wars), then other Domestic matters like MJ. For ads in the 2012 season, our best bet to to show the economic impact of legalization and how it can help the current fiscal crisis(both economic and government debt wise.
    Johnson/Paul 2012!

  10. Wish, I could edit my posts at least until they get published. Made a grammatical error or two and a mistype… “seasons” should be “season”, “MJ isn’t high on…”, some capitalization inconsistencies, and a missing parenthesis.
    Oh well…
    Paul/Johnson 2012!

  11. Genesists do not speak in God’s name – No! No! No! God takes care of God’s business – TCB. Genesists speak through our belief system – and – our individual application of the truth found in our belief system. Speak the truth – shame the devil!

  12. 61 Charles
    We heard your words [intent] – don’t worry about punctuation – and – don’t worry about political correctness. It has come down to “black and white.” Nobody cares about gray anymore. “Yer either fer it – or – agin’ it.” It’s just that simple. If one is against – one needs to convince me “why” they are resistant. Unlike government – my ears are completely receptive. “Just prove their point.” If there is any one out there that wants to state their case and make their point – just do it. I along with my brethren are anxious to listen to any one that can make their case. I personally will change my stance to accept and include logic and reason from another point of view. Just let me have it right between the eyes. I’m wide open to your point of view – you logic and reason – and your conclusion.

  13. The Prohibitionist’s are like the Geocentrist’s/Catholic Church of the 1600’s. Legend has it that Galileo offered for the Pope to look through his telescope to see the true nature of the Universe but the Pope refused because his mind was already made up that the Earth was the center. Galileo was then brought up on Heresy charges and bascially spent the rest of his life under house arrest. The Prohibitionist’s DO NOT WANT TO SEE, but one day they will be proven wrong just like that Stupid Pope and all the other jerks of thier time. Cannabis and Industrial Hemp are Miracle Plants and someday the science will be overwhelming and the truth will be known. I just hope it is in my lifetime.

  14. The current time and date in (UTC/GMT) is
    6:34 PM
    Thursday, May 26, 2011
    I pray and wonder about my only soul, do you wonder, have you wondered?
    Is it time?
    +This is a response I recieved
    On 5/25/2011 12:28 PM, Nicodemus wrote:
    > In days, we could finally see the beginning of the end of the ‘
    > war on drugs’. This expensive war has completely failed to curb the plague
    > of drug addiction, while costing countless lives, devastating communities,
    > and funneling trillions of dollars into violent organized crime networks.
    > Experts all agree that the most sensible policy is to regulate, but
    > politicians are afraid to touch the issue. In days, a global commission
    > including former heads of state and foreign policy chiefs of the UN, EU,
    > US, Brazil, Mexico and more will break the taboo and publicly call for new
    > approaches including decriminalization and regulation of drugs.
    This same approach has been used with alcohol, tobacco and firearms,
    and it DOES NOT WORK! The ONLY solution to these problems is the same
    solution that bleeding heart liberals haven’t the intestinal fortitude
    to use. Kill the drug lords and dealers, FORCE the supply to DRY UP
    and you FORCE the junkies to sober up or DIE. Drug dealers kill people
    in more than one way; they SHOULD get what is coming to THEM…NOT
    simply a slap on the wrist.
    Use the US military, ROUT them out and KILL EVERY LAST ONE OF THEM,
    I pray and wonder about my only soul, do you wonder, have you wondered?

  15. so i feel like if the goverment really wants to do something about our deatt they should listen to the peaple and ligalize pot.just think of all the money you are waisting by not doing it .

  16. Nic (65), that seems to be extreme advise:!
    Nic: “The ONLY solution to these problems is the same
    solution that bleeding heart liberals haven’t the intestinal fortitude to use. Kill the drug lords and dealers, FORCE the supply to DRY UP and you FORCE the junkies to sober up or DIE.”
    Nic: “Use the US military, ROUT them out and KILL EVERY LAST ONE OF THEM,
    NO MERCY.”
    Nic is voicing my sarcastic attitude at this insane “War on Drugs”, and if the Feds are serious – do it – kill us all, as according to your opinion, we’re all “dead” anyways. Only one “joint” is enough to kill us, according to a past drug czar… especially if you’re lucky enough to get busted that first time!
    The reality is: I heartedly agree all “recreational drugs/plants” should be legalized, however NOT by violent means… “, especially a war on US citizens that creates victims… which our current system of Laws and Justice creates.
    LEAP, Law Enforcement Against Prohibition has a link to the petition listed here several times… it appears a major commission on reform of world drug laws is indeed being addressed. It’s not a scam.
    Visit LEAP here: – a link to the AVAZZ is there. Please sign the global petition through the LEAP link, Yes, even law enforcement members are aware a war doesn’t work!
    The link to the petition is here:
    What I’d really like to know is why we hear about these critical events days before they happen, if not after, the fact.
    Stop the hurt – de-schedule cannabis!!!

  17. I’ve been doing something lately and want to suggest that everyone of you reading this consider doing it too. Basically, I look for news blogs and find a way to add to the blog with a marijuana angle. For example, I found a blog about how bad the ragweed is this year. I commented that marijuana should be made legal and that ragweed should be made illegal. Then we should send the DEA out to eliminate the ragweed; thus justifying their continued existence… Anyway, I’m sure you’re all intelligent and get my point! I think this is a good way to get out various points out to people who don’t peruse marijuana related blogs like this one!

  18. When one compare how much damage in society alcohol does and how much marijuana does all this laws is a joke !!
    ..however unlucky people spend years in prison for that joke . Why wee can purchase alcohol legally everywhere while is costing tragedies : car accidents , domestic abuse, violent crimes ,etc,etc. .. Did you hear about those things happening as result of using cannabis alone ??…I’m almost ready to say ; ” never ” because personally i never heard about violence or speeding on freeway under influence of marijuana alone !..
    is time to straight some things out regardless of lawmakers and authorities agenda .

  19. 72. Nic
    “What happened to the revolution?”
    It’s still going strong – that’s why the feds are going stronger – but – they have 60 less bullets today – and that’s 60 bullets they are going to have to account for to the American people – 60 counts of murder. Everyone should have a Jose Guerno T-shirt that we can rub their noses in – that they have to look at every day, everywhere they go – that hey have to see in their dreams – and – be their worst nightmare.

  20. The answer to this seems easy to me…If everyone who wants marijuana legalized were to quit paying taxes, the fed would have it’s hand forced on this one. If nation-wide smoke-ins were scheduled and performed as close to every state capital (with all interested parties involved…no chance there…most Americans lack the balls) in protest, we might see some movement on this issue.
    These to me are the kinds of organized, strategic moves that I see as being necessary to win this fight. The blacks didn’t get equal representation in the eyes of the law by singing Kumbiyah in the safety of their homes…they got it by taking it to the streets, and being willing to go to jail for their beliefs….right now such beings are simply in too few supply… I guess the DEA and the fed will keep winning as long as this is the case.

  21. @Oz – Your words make sense and seem logical. But, I remember a time when people did have balls and did the things you suggest; protesting, smoke-ins, being willing to go to jail for this cause. It happened in the 60s and part of the 70s and as it turns out, the warmongers, led by Nixon, crushed them… The hippies tried to use logic and peace but weapons won out…
    Am I wrong?

  22. 75. Oz
    When you’re playing “kick ass” it’s the guy that kicks the hardest and the longest that wins – and – the loser goes home with their tail between their legs. But – there’s an easier way to “kick ass” here. What were playing here is the “Super Bowl of Kick Ass.” The killer robots just murdered Jose Guerena. Every rack and package in the U.S. should wear a Jose Guerena T-shirt 24/7/365. We must never let the opposition forget this God Almighty disgraceful act against humanity. We must make them puke every time they see one – and – we should make them puke their guts out leaving them as empty as they are.

  23. 76. Don
    I know you said that you hit the off button on your remote control – but – those hippies you refer to as being crushed, are now running this government. I guess they got even [revenge] with Tricky Dick [our long national nightmare]. How can Americans be proud of any of this – and – if they are – they’re delusional? How about the Jose Guerena T-shirt? Is that too violent? No! his murder was violent – and – violence begets violence.

  24. This is the best country in the entire world, with that said, we the people are the ones who vote our elected politicians into office and we must start voting for those politicians who support what the people want !!!! Marijuan is medicinal and everyone knows that, but our government dont want to legalize a drug that they have classified as dangerous for so many years.. We must send all politicians a big message this November by voting all those who dont support the will of the people out of office.. Legalize Pot now and end this craziness now. Liquor is the worse drug yet its socially acceptable and legal. America wake up before the citizens of this great country begin to protest out of control like in other parts of the world, and we must demand change to these laws immidiately. Legalize Pot now !!!!

  25. 79. jumior
    “We must start voting for those politicians who support what the people want !!!!”
    We do support politicians that claim to adhere to the “will of the people” when on the campaign trail. The problem is – “They end up being forked tongued devils talking out of the sides of their mouths.” We have to determine who is lying and who is telling the truth before we vote for them. Check out their voting record before you vote – after is too late.

  26. i say file a lawsuit on the DEA for wasting everyone’s time, put the Drug Czar in jail, and root out all the corruption in the Gov….wait a sec the corrupt own the system we can’t use their system against them

  27. 81. Matt
    “Wait a sec the corrupt own the system we can’t use their system against them.”
    The hell we can’t! – and – the 2012 elections is the place to do it. Poor politicians – they’re getting it from both ends – from the corruptors that control them – to the people that own them. Ha! ha! what a job!

  28. I keep hearing these debates and honestly its painfully to see these people in pain having to wait for a magical OK.. i smoke.. it helps.. for those who haven’t done it the buzz is between a cigarette and booze..strain depending..that’s another discussion the way they cant totally prove the effects due to the cannibinoids (sorry for the typo) react differently between different individuals receptors..By the way its possible to smoke yourself sober.. true fact personal experience..n e ways the point i am having a problem with is why were we misguided and lied to as young ones?..Profit? what profit?we are spending billions and in some areas the money they receive from a bust gets locked in a room.. that’s right money that came from people that work and smoke to relax and/or medicate gets locked in a room.. taking money out of the economy?..the thing is our constitution says that we can’t be told what we can or cant ingest.. FDA rolls around with the DEA and we’ve been locked in a losing battle ever since.. now teachers losing jobs and people becoming more ignorant to the truth were kinda stuck in a mess.. the thing is look at history..all superpowers eventually fall when the infrastructure falls.. Americas is rated D all across the board.. hmm.. where can we get the money?! cannabis is the only plant where money really does grow on trees.. take advantage tax it an rebuild America!!im 21 how cant the politicians get it? Or is there more than what we see?money trades hands in politics don’t let people fool you..there’s thousands of uses for cannabis but the problem is there no lobbyist for marijuana giving senators pay offs..think about it they will listen to the guy with the most cash..

  29. The DEA refuses to reclassify Cannabis as a drug with medical properties. While the DEA has licensed over 50 cultivation permits for pharmaceutical companies to develop Cannabis based medications. And the synthetic Cannabis medication Sativex should be approved by the FDA next year in time to show the voters that the administration is pro medical Cannabis. The administration wants Cannabis profits in the hands of corporations not dirty old hippies.

  30. 84: C. Lloyd:
    No doubt all the big-Pharma drugs based on cannabis are for the terminally ill, with their doctor telling them they have about 6 months to live.
    That’s great! That very sick people have good medicine while under hospice care. The problem is cannabis obviously has an extraordinary range of benefits and not just to people with medical necessity, but rather, people of all walks of life, from people who benefit for social issues like ADHD, stress, PTSD (as a therapy for bad dreams), religious and spiritual enlightenment, an alternative to harmful drugs like alcohol and tobacco, the list goes on.
    I am still interested in hearing the scientific proof behind the lack of medicinal value of cannabis, and the extreme potential as very addictive drug, as in casual use of the plant. I see, have seen ZERO proof of any evidence of this claim, which is the basis of a Schedule One “Narcotic”, and it isn’t even a narcotic – proof of that would be important to.
    Where’s “transparency”? There isn’t any. All of it is anecdotal!!!
    Where did all these promising Big Pharma drugs originate from? Tobacco?
    Tobacco is the drug that they pretend is cannabis, as it fits exactly within a Schedule One category.
    As Rep. Barney Frank said recently, “cannabis is not habit-forming or at least not as much as tobacco is”, and the fact is, there is NO MEDICAL VALUE to tobacco, except to kill people in what I consider a slow, suddenly painful death.
    What this tells me our government does not want respect for authority, does not require “trust in government”, faith in it’s decisions, any of that. They want control… total control, and author George Orwell was absolutely correct in his visions, and novel “1984”…
    It’s a matter of if you’re wealthy enough you can have your own private growing room and grow whatever. Get caught, you can afford an attorney to get you off with what the average citizen will find is life in prison.
    So what can we do??? We’ve got a House packed with evangelical Tea-Party zombies whose goal is to redefine government and in the name of Life, Liberty and Pursuit of Happiness, make it as prejudice as possible, for only those who follow like sheep. The Lord’s Sheep, and if you’re anything other than that, privatized prisons is where one belongs.
    How soon before the American Inquisition begins? Or has it already begun… yes, it’s already been going on now for at least 70+ years. From what I understand of the “Tea-Party”, if you belong, you’d say that is not true. You’d say, government isn’t doing enough to tread on those who aren’t mainstream religious, don’t accept government should “educate students with more firm goals, like Creationism instead of science.
    But even Creationists can’t say pseudo-scientifically that cannabis is by God, a schedule 1 drug. God gave humans the plants of the earth, the cattle, and all crawling things. He didn’t specify or give those rights to the DEA or Tea-Party members.
    I have no respect or confidence in either of them… I’ve seen what the 40 year “War on Drugs” has does to our nation. I’ve seen what lack of transparency has done. And I voted for a seated President that seems to care little, or is powerless to do what he promised he’d do.
    Stop the Hurt!!!

  31. The president is powerless to legislate Medical Cannabis or decriminalize it on his own but he has the power to reclassify it. And to stop harassing state governments that have Medical Cannabis programs. And to be open and honest with the American people of the stance of the US government and the research partnerships it has wit pharmaceutical companies. One of the presidents main campaign promises was to be transparent. I am sure with the upcoming elections we will hear an apology on that with promises to be more open.

  32. @86 – Considering how dishonest and non-transparent Obama’s administration has been thus far, I can find no reason to believe he will be any different if we allow him a second term. I hope with all my heart that we are given a better option for President in the next election! Given the chance, I’d vote for Ron Paul or Gary Johnson in a heartbeat but it doesn’t look like the powers that be are going to let that happen…

  33. What are your favorite flowers? With a view warning, I like totally much astromerii.

  34. and today 14 feb 2018 yet another, official attempt at correcting this [now ridiculous]
    false incorrect and wrong mis-scheduling
    – schedule 1, for heroin, strychnine etc –
    of the nontoxic non-addictive non-narcotic
    therapeutic god given plant cannabis for which
    there has been not a single death caused in thousands of years of recorded history..
    so much for american democracy, when the vaste majpority of american citizens approve of, thewrapeutic and recreational cannabis..
    when most citizens live in states with medical cannabis laws, and nine states [and counting]
    have legal recreational cannabis laws..
    seems the law and constitution are meant for protecting the corrupt and god help epileptic children and others in need of this genuine
    proven therapeutric medicine..
    based on, human brains endo-cannabinoid system,
    which actively uses cannabinols of cannabis in various specific therapeutic actions..
    yet, an old brain, conditioned to ancient rhetoric long disproved, unelected by anyone,
    now stands [again] between the will of the vaste majority at the behest of big pharma, big alcohol, big tobacco and various vested interests such as private prisons overflowing with mainly black cannabis users…
    view from outside looking in..

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