Fed's Criterion For Busting Medical Marijuana Industry

To: DEA, HIDTA, Federal task force partners in California for internal law enforcement use only. Not for public use or circulation [Editor’s note: Hah! Also, this memo is only applicable in California—not Colorado, New Mexico and Maine, where these states regulate the medical cannabis industry (whereas California does not, arguably opening the door to federal incursions and prosecutions).] From: California United States Attorneys
This memorandum outlines factors that all four California U.S. Attorneys Offices (the USAOs) agree may render a particular marijuana case suitable for federal prosecution. Identification of these factors is intended to assist federal, state and local law enforcement agencies in determining whether a particular marijuana case has significant potential for federal prosecution and conducting investigations in a manner that develops the best evidence to support federal prosecution (Footnote 1). The USAOS will consider for federal prosecution cases investigated by federal, state or local law enforcement agencies that implicate federal interests as reflected in the factors. Cases investigated by federal agencies will generally be given priority over cases adopted from state or local investigations. The factors listed below are relevant to the USAOs consideration of whether a marijuana case should be prosecuted federally but the presence or absence of one or more of the factors will not guarantee or preclude federal prosecution in any case. In general the federal interest will be greater in prosecuting leaders and organizers of the criminal activity as opposed to lower level workers.
The memorandum is intended as prospective guidance only, is not intended to have the force of law and is not intended to, does not, and may not be relied on to create any right, privilege or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable by any person or entity against any type of the USAOs, DOJ or the United States.
1) Domestic distribution cases.
Federal prosecution of a case of domestic distribution of marijuana should generally involve at least 200 or more kilograms of marijuana and also include additional factors that reflect a clear federal interest in prosecution (Footnote 2—This guidance for domestic distribution cases does not apply to cases involving distribution within or smuggling into a federal prison.18 USC 1791). Typically the more marijuana above 200 kilograms the better the potential for federal prosecution. Domestic distribution cases involving quantities of marijuana below 200kilograms should demonstrate an especially strong federal interest or should not be prosecuted with marijuana distribution as the sole federal charge. Set forth below is a non-exhaustive list of factors that USAOs believe indicate a federal interest in a domestic distribution case.

*Distribution by an individual or organization with provable ties to an international drug cartel or a poly-drug trafficking organization.
*Distribution of significant quantities to persons or organizations outside California.
*Distribution by individuals with significant prior criminal histories.
*Distribution by individuals with provable ties to a street gang that engages in drug trafficking involving violent conduct.
*Distribution for the purpose of funding other criminal activities.
*Distribution near protected locations or involving underage or vulnerable people (e.g. in violation of 21 USC 859 persons under 21, 860 near schools, playground and colleges, 861 employment of persons under 18).
*Distribution involving the use or presence of firearms or other dangerous weapons including cases that would support charges under 18 USC 924c.
*Distribution generating significant profits that are used or concealed in ways that would support charges of federal financial crimes such as tax evasion, money laundering or structuring. Note: Generation of significant profits alone generally will not be viewed as a factor weighing in favor of federal prosecution.
*Distribution in conjunction with other federal crimes involving violence or intimidation.
2. Cultivation cases.
Federal prosecution of a marijuana case involving cultivation on non-federal or non-tribal land, indoor or outdoor, should generally involve at least 1,000 marijuana plants so that the quantity necessary to trigger the ten-year mandatory minimum sentence can be clearly proven and also include additional factors that reflect a clear federal interest in prosecution. Typically, the more marijuana above 1,000 plants, the better the potential for federal prosecution. Non-federal or non-tribal land cases involving quantities below 1,000 plants should demonstrate an especially strong federal interest or should not be prosecuted with marijuana cultivation as the sole federal charge. Federal prosecution of a marijuana case involving cultivation on federal or tribal land should generally involve at least 500 marijuana plants and also include additional factors that reflect a clear federal interest in prosecution. Cases on federal or tribal land involving quantities below 500 plants will be considered if they demonstrate a strong federal interest, if the cultivation has caused significant damage to federal or tribal lands or has occurred in an area of exclusive federal jurisdiction (Footnote 3– The USAOs will consider the totality of circumstances with respect to all marijuana plant quantities in these guidelines. For example, the presence of especially mature, large or robust plants will generally weigh in favor of prosecution while the presence of seedlings or immature plants will generally weigh against prosecution). Set forth below is a non-exhaustive list of factors that the USAOs believe indicate a federal interest that may justify federal prosecution of a marijuana case involving cultivation whether on federal, tribal or other lands.
*Cultivation causing significant environmental damage, risk to human health or interference with particularly sensitive land or significant recreational interests, ie damage to wilderness area or wildlife, danger to innocent families using a recreation area or use of toxic or dangerous chemicals.
*Cultivation by an individual or organization with provable ties to an international drug cartel or poly-drug trafficking organization.
*Cultivation of significant quantities on behalf or persons or organizations outside California.
*Cultivation by individuals with significant prior criminal histories.
*Cultivation by individuals with provable ties to a street gang that engages in drug trafficking involving violent conduct.
*Cultivation for the purpose of funding other criminal activities.
*Cultivation near protected locations or involving under-age or vulnerable people (eg,  in violation…
*Cultivation involving the use or presence of fire-arms, booby traps or other dangerous weapons including cases that would support charges under 18 USC 924c.
*Cultivation generating significant profits that are used or concealed in ways that would support charges for federal financial crimes such as tax evasion, money laundering or structuring.
Note—generation of significant profits alone will not be viewed as a factor weighing in favor of federal prosecution.
*Cultivation in conjunction with other federal crimes involving violence or intimidation


3. Dispensary cases.
Given California state law, prosecution of marijuana stores or “dispensaries” purporting to comply with state law face additional challenges. Federal prosecution of a case involving a marijuana store should generally involve a) provable sales through seizures or records of over 200 kilograms or 1000 plants per year. b) sales clearly in violation of state law, eg sales to persons without legitimate doctors’ recommendations, side-sales occurring outside of the store or shipping to persons outside of California (Note—selling for profit, though a violation of state l aw, typically alone will not alone satisfy this requirement), and c) additional factors that reflect a federal interest in prosecution. Set forth below is a non-exhaustive list of such additional factors. Nothing herein should be taken as a limitation on investigation by federal law enforcement to determine the existence of these factors. However, search warrants or other more intrusive investigative techniques directed at marijuana stores should be closely coordinated with the USAOs.
*Marijuana “inventory” obtained from cultivation on federal or tribal land.
*Targets involved in cultivation or distribution outside of the dispensary that merits federal prosecution based on consideration of factors set forth in sections 1 and 2 above.
*Targets using profits from the dispensary to support other criminal activity.
*Store linked to physician providing marijuana recommendations without plausible legitimate justification, eg doctor on site providing recommendation with no on-site examinations or legitimate medical procedures.

*Targets have significant prior criminal histories.
*Targets have provable ties to a street gang that engages in drug trafficking involving violent conduct.
*Store operations involve the use or presence or firearms or other dangerous weapons including cases that would support charges under 18 USC 924.
*Store generates significant profits that are used/concealed in ways that would support charges for federal financial crimes such as tax evasion, money laundering or structuring. Note–generation of significant profits alone generally will not be viewed as a factor weighing in favor of federal prosecution
*Store operations in conjunction with other federal crimes involving violence or intimidation.
*Store employs minors under 18 and/or sells a significant portion of marijuana to minors under the age of 21 especially where evidence that minors aren’t using for medical purposes


4. Civil forfeiture.
The USAOs general preference is to pursue forfeiture through criminal forfeiture or civil forfeiture filed in parallel with a criminal case. Nevertheless circumstances may arise in which civil forfeiture alone is the best option. Those cases will generally involve one or more of the following:
*Significant forfeitable assets clearly traceable to marijuana trafficking in violation of federal criminal law that would merit federal prosecution based on consideration of factors set forth in sections 1-3 above.
*Significant forfeitable assets clearly traceable to non-marijuana related violations of federal law such as structuring or money-laundering. Large scale “medical marijuana” cultivation operations that 1) are operating in violation of state law 2) involve real property that has been the subject of a warning letter or similar prior notice or 3) involve real property that has been the subject of a prior forfeiture proceeding arising from marijuana cultivation or a property owner who has been a claimant in such proceedings or individual targets not subject to criminal prosecution eg fugitives or persons whose involvement in marijuana trafficking is too marginal to justify criminal prosecution including off-site land lords and non-resident owners falsely claiming ignorance of tenant’s marijuana trafficking.

57 thoughts

  1. well… honestly thats fairly reasonable
    either they’ve wised up at least a little in regards to public opinion or they just don’t have the resources to go after everyone. I’m guessing the latter.

  2. Jesus said to do unto others as we would have them to do unto us. None of us would want our child or grandchild thrown in jail with the sexual predators over marijuana. None of us would want to see an older family member’s home confiscated and sold by the police for growing a couple of marijuana plants for their aches and pains. It’s time to stop putting our own family members in jail over marijuana.
    If ordinary Americans could grow a little marijuana in their own back yards, it would be about as valuable as home-grown tomatoes. Let’s put the criminals out of business and get them out of our neighborhoods. It’s time to let ordinary Americans grow a little marijuana in their own back yards.
    Here’s one way that was REALLY WORKING until the Federal government targeted them in October 2011: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/2011/07/the-pot-republic-one-sheriffs-quietly-radical-experiment.html
    We can email our Congressperson and Senators at http://www.usa.gov/Contact/Elected.shtml to discuss HR 2306, the proposed Federal law that will get the Federal government out of the marijuana business and let states make their own laws.
    And a big THANK YOU to the courageous, freedom loving legislators, governors, and countless others who are working so hard to bring this through! You’re doing a great patriotic service for all of America!

  3. “Drug war” = genocide! The actual corporate controllers of prohibition should be exposed as the greedy killers they are! If the public knew the truth, the “drug war” would be no more…

  4. I have a friend that was arrested by the feds, they tore his house apart took him out in his yard threw him to the ground, upset his 80 year old mother. They found zip not one thing. It’s been two years of drug testing a probation officer visits often , travel restrictions and no trial yet. With the Feds you are guilty before proven innocent. No wonder the US has more citizens in jail per capita that any nation in the world.

  5. Kind of sounds like what the feds are doing across the border with mexico; maybe they should be arrested!

  6. If my bureaucrat English is still working this sounds like a reasonable start; linking criminal activity, significant quantities and significant assets to prosecution. Do I have a grasp of the situation?

  7. I don’t think they have been following these guidlines when they shut down dispensaries. With as many dispensaries as they have shut down there is no way they were all involved in this kind of activity.

  8. The Feds ALWAYS lie.
    No matter how much detail they go into to establish a set of criteria for instigation of prosecution of medical cannabis users, growers, & dispensaries, read the article closely and remember that they come right out and say that these ‘guidelines’ don’t bestow any rights or privileges or boundaries.
    Prosecutors and local / state / federal LEOs WILL make criminal examples of anyone that would dare to publicly challenge federal statutes, including especially activists. Even long-established federal plant count maximums have changed on a case-by-case basis, from actual plant count per instance to cumulative estimated lifetime plant counts. They just make it up as they go along.
    Re-classifying cannabis in the CSA from Schedule 1 to Schedule 2 or even 3 will not reign-in the Feds assault on citizens’ inalienable rights regarding medical cannabis. So long as it remains in the CSA Schedule any cannabis use may trigger Federal persecution, based not upon official published guidelines but instead () the asset forfeiture revenue stream, () political ambition of prosecutors & LEOs, and () whatever level of visceral terror these fascists feel the need to instill in the citizenry at the time.
    We are no longer talking about the USA as a constitutional republic with equal protection guarantees under the rule of constitutional law. Recent legislative action in the US Senate regarding unconstitutional provisions attached as riders to the NDAA perfectly illustrates the tyranny under which We The People now live. We The People are all now lumped into that broad category of ‘domestic terrorists’ that do not include ‘our’ Legislative & Executive branches (above the law), nor the Fed & Wall Street Mobsters that contrived the economic collapse we are now experiencing (TBTFail & TBTJail).

  9. Maybe a summery of this letter would help me and others understand what this means.
    I have to say I am a little confused.

  10. These are just guidelines and don’t mean much. Matt Cohen was busted for 99 plants which is no where near 1000. Fact is they will do whatever the fuck they want to do so don’t piss them off.
    Above all don’t go on TV or in magazines and papers showing off huge plants and gardens. Matt Cohen was repeatedly (almost constantly) on TV showing off huge plants and now he is broke and has no cannabis.
    Remember the feds don’t play fair. They (ATF) sell guns to Mexican Cartels and then the DEA launders the money for them and puts users in prison to control competition and keep prices high. The game is rigged and citizen/subjects always lose.
    If you want to be a TV star stay out of the cannabis business.

  11. It’s not fairly reasonable. This memorandum is filled with prohibitionist bullshit. If a dispensary moves more than 200 kg per annum, they are a target. A coffeeshop in a small Dutch city easily retails 7 kilos a day. That’s despite the fact that they’re allowed to maintain a maximum of only 500 g on the premises. You do the math. People with prior criminal histories are subject to prosecution, meaning what? If someone was busted for selling weed, they’re not supposed to be able to sell MMJ? Asswipes. Fuck them. Cut their budget down to zero! This is the kind of fuckin’ horseshit they use to justify their budgets, then they fuckin’ turn around and raid dispensaries in compliance, threaten the landlords, raid Mendocino legal, tagged plots under the watch of local police, set the IRS on dispensaries and providers.
    The are so full of shit.
    Cut their fuckin’ budgets NOW!

  12. This criteria doesn’t mean anything. Look at Matt Cohen who was licensed and busted with 99 plants (Mendocino County) and all the other dispensaries who were busted following state law. They don’t have to follow any of this checklist at all to prosecute anyone for marijuana distribution. Every dispensary possesses and distributes marijuana, and that puts every single one up for federal prosecution.

  13. How do they go and target cultivation and/or distribution on tribal lands belonging to supposedly sovereign tribes already long ago screwed over by our wonderful federal government?!!!

  14. This war against the American people boils down to a business. That is what these people are protecting; and they are looking for the big bucks. Because they are certainly not protecting us from the evil marijuana. Dispensaries over a safer marijuana over street marijuana. This might be a concern the DEA might have if this organization had the public’s best interests in mind. No, any reasonable society would have doctors decide what is medicine, not a corrupt (and conflict of interest) government bureaucracy. Marijuana is food, fuel, fiber and medicine according to everybody but the government!
    How can reasonable people be hoodwinked into thinking that a plant, that has evolved naturally on the planet for tens of thousands of years maybe before man, is so important that it needs to have harsh laws against it, imprisonment, and forfeiture?
    Destroying a person’s life with a DEA marijuana conviction (job, resume, credit, voting, etc.), when there are no REAL medical grounds for doing so in light of the thousands of other similar *risk* products available to the American people, this issue should then becomes a human rights violation against marijuana consumers and patients when the motive for such laws and regulations boils down to a generation of money for the establishment.
    This drug war is a scam out in the open. In today’s sophisticated society one would think that this could not happen, a war against the people over a plant.

  15. The elections for federal office are about 10 months away. It is time to elect people to federal office that are committed to getting the federal government to leave medical marijuana states alone.

  16. Using and growing marijuana should not be considered criminal acts. Therefore, their argument is irrelevant. The government is just trying to use criminal behavior to excuse their actions, when in fact they are the true criminals.

  17. As of Dec. 1, section 1031 of the National Defense Authorization Act became effective. By using these, and I am sure more, secret notes, they will be able to call you a threat to America.
    You can now be detained without warrant or probable cause, with out charges being applied, held for an indefinate amount of time, and eventually exacuted. This is all possible NOW. The door swings only one way now.
    If they can tap you on the shoulder, they can not only own you, but anything you own. Which is one of their primary purposes,see section 4. Also, consider that once they have you, ANY family member or friend will instantly come under “suspicion”. Think of your parents or children being put under their scrutiny.
    This is no longer a Rebublic. It is now a Police State!
    As we all, I hope, vote this year for President. Please, keep in mind that even though Obama has, is, and will be a terrible President. Newt has already said he wants drug dealers dealt with as Singapore does. Singapore kills All drug dealers by hanging. If, for any reason you need public assistance you will be drug tested. I am positive that on this coures, it soon will come too, you being drug tested for your drivers license and also to register to vote.
    I don’t know about you, but I am scared has hell!

  18. My respect for the DEA and marijuana laws < zero!
    We should be able to vote, as a nation, on whether we think it should be legal or not. And if the nation decides that it should be illegal, then we should be able to vote on what the penalties should be. It is just not right for people who manipulate the drug czar puppet to be making those kinds of decisions!

  19. It’s just more of the same old tactics with different results somehow expected. The only real beneficiaries of this crackdown are the Mexican Drug Cartels, who will see more profits. Now we’re providing them with guns, too.
    Your tax dollars at work.

  20. Note that these are the guidelines for prosecution, not the guidelines for who can be raided. The feds can take your meds, take your cash, wreck your store and then sit on everything for years while charges are “pending”. The deck is stacked. We need to shuffle it to get a fair deal.

  21. Fuck the DEA Fuck the government and Fuck you Obama…you’re such a hack. I say all the states band together and draft up a new country. Lets call it New America and kick out the corrupt assholes. Theres so much dishonesty going on, I just can’t believe that Cannabis (not marijuana!!) is still considered a threat. WHY?! Give us a real reason please…this shit is driving me crazy.

  22. This letter gives insight into what at least some of the Federal government is thinking. We should probably take into consideration that they see marijuana as a problem, and openly legalizing cannabis will not tend to their wants. If money is the real reason cannabis is prohibited, surely there’s a way to make it work for them.

  23. Hah, DEA just allegedly got caught laundering hundreds of thousands of dollars from the Mexican cartels. Supposedly to “track the money” just like the ATF did with the guns.
    So let me get this right: Our government is supplying guns to the Mexican Drug Cartels, and they’re involved in the laundering… LAUNDERING… of 100,000s of dollars from them? ONLY because of P.R.O.H.I.B.I.T.I.O.N!

  24. Theres no fucking way this bitch Michelle Leonhart has NO idea that her stupid as adminninstration is commiting illegal activities on a daily basis. Let’s go over the recent developments regarding marijuana:
    – Mexican Drug Cartels expected to take over the election in 2012 in Mexico
    – The ATF has been allowing guns to pass over to the Mexican Cartels and has already resulted in a death from those guns
    – The DEA is allegedly laundering 100,000s of dollars from the Mexican Cartels
    – The violence has escalated to a historical high, killing 40,000+ in 5 years and according to Michelle it’s “a good sign”
    – And the rate of marijuana has risen
    – No person STILL has died from consuming too much cannabis
    What’s her justification now?

  25. #23 actually it isn’t a crime. Laws were invented to deal with crime. Not to pretend non-criminal activity is a crime by writting it down on paper. This is running the logic in reverse, something children do all the time when playing “make believe”. We should not be playing “make believe” with any laws–not just those regarding marijuana. It is nearly the samething as letting small children (or at least mental midgets) play with people’s lives.

  26. At the end, did anyone else get the feeling that means they’ll just start using civil forfeiture a lot more? That still means busting into places and confiscating (stealing) stuff.

  27. Souds loopholey, but at least it’s something. This should alleviate the IRS concerns which was one of the biggest problems with the crackdown (more so than just the raids– pissing off the IRS is worse).
    Don’t see anything restoring our 2nd amendment rights, but like I said– it’s a start.

  28. # 25 Michael B Says:
    “As of Dec. 1, section 1031 of the National Defense Authorization Act became effective. By using these, and I am sure more, secret notes, they will be able to call you a threat to America.
    You can now be detained without warrant or probable cause, with out charges being applied, held for an indefinate amount of time, and eventually exacuted. This is all possible NOW. The door swings only one way now.
    If they can tap you on the shoulder, they can not only own you, but anything you own. Which is one of their primary purposes,see section 4. Also, consider that once they have you, ANY family member or friend will instantly come under “suspicion”. Think of your parents or children being put under their scrutiny.
    This is no longer a Rebublic. It is now a Police State!
    As we all, I hope, vote this year for President. Please, keep in mind that even though Obama has, is, and will be a terrible President. Newt has already said he wants drug dealers dealt with as Singapore does. Singapore kills All drug dealers by hanging. If, for any reason you need public assistance you will be drug tested. I am positive that on this coures, it soon will come too, you being drug tested for your drivers license and also to register to vote.
    I don’t know about you, but I am scared has hell!”
    Fed- Up says: The section 1031 is Insane…It doesn’t matter how you personaly fell about 9/11 at this point,weather you beleive it was a false flag or an Alqueda mission,the fact remains that this historic event(witch is now a national holiday)
    has destroyed our freedoms as Americans to the core.I will personaly never celebrate 9/11 as a holiday ever, never. My point being that monster bills like section 1031 would never had existed if it wasn’t for that Tragic event.
    The word ‘Terrorism’ so well used by the Media is now becoming a broad base word that can have many implications i’ts kind of like the word “Satan’ had for Christians during the witch burnings in the middle ages…And i do believe that marijuana users where termed ‘terrorist’
    during the Bush years for funding drug cartels)I saw it on a television commercial
    Now based on “hypothetical scenarios” of what could happen in the future…left to the imagination of the manipulative stratagist or the ‘think tanks” The sky is the limit.for these a-holes and how they can use their terminology to inslave torture and assasinate innocent American citizens at their whim. That’s why we need Dr Paul to give this whole system an Enema.
    If you think i am a “conspiracy theorist” tell me something positive or tell me that i am wrong. I dont want to believe this reality.

  29. Pffft, as if they would ever adhere at all to any sort of criteria regarding who they should and shouldn’t prosecute. They’ll prosecute anyone they view as a threat to their interests, and once they’re all taken care of they’ll just move on to the next most appealing targets.
    These people, no matter what part of the machine it may be, from the agents making arrests all the way up through to the head of the DEA, are at this point beyond any pretense of following any sort of guidelines. The DEA and similar groups function no differently than a well established criminal enterprise, and thus we can expect their behavior to reflect that.
    Criminals don’t follow rules. They don’t see or care about right or wrong. The only thing ever on their mind is them and how they can benefit themselves. They do what they please with whoever they please, and are willing to either intimate or buy out anyone who could do anything about it. Of course the fact that these particular criminals use money out of every single one of our pockets in order to fund their activities only makes it all the more infuriating.
    See, this is a memorandum and explicitly states in the intro that the whole thing is essentially a recommendation. It’s more or less like sending a letter to the mob asking them if they could maybe please only extort money from certain people and only in a certain fashion, and the chances of them laughing at the suggestion and continuing on with business as usual is about the same as well.
    Groups that function as criminals don’t respond to niceties, pleas or suggestions. They respond to real, actual firm actions that get the message across, and they sure as hell aren’t going to give up even a hint of their power unless people are actually willing to step up and rip it away from them. That’s what we need here, not more suggestions or recommendations.
    Of course any time one is dealing with a criminal enterprise the fact is that people who are not only not on the groups payroll, but also courageous enough to risk their necks, and in this case, political standing in order to do what’s right are very rare.
    Criminals don’t get away with it forever though and criminal groups never last forever, so maybe some day enough people with enough power and enough personal motivation will step up these so that these become mandates rather than recommendations, and once you start chipping away at a powerful crime group’s hold weaknesses start to appear and doubt begins to rise…then it doesn’t take long for it to all fall apart.

  30. Here is a partial list of excuses the government has used to keep marijuana listed as dangerous:
    “It causes blacks and whites get along”
    Actually, this is true, so please explain how this is an issue for someone?
    “It will turn you into a whore”
    Nope.
    “It will ruin your life”
    Nope, that is the police’s job.
    “It will get you hooked on dangerous drugs”
    Nope.
    “It will get you raped.”
    Nope. Being around rapists can get you raped.
    “It causes brain damage.”
    Nope. And listening to the endless crap that spews forth from some politicos is what, “mentally enriching”?
    “It makes time slow down.”
    Hmm, true, but how’s this an issue?
    “Causes/related to schizophrenia.”
    Hmm, not even close.
    “Damages your DNA. Inducing birth defects.”
    No idiots, that’s dozens of other drugs and alcohol.
    “Supports Terrorism.”
    No, our own bad policies especially those concocted by the CIA have supported terrorist organizations and individuals around the world. These idiots helped build up Al-qua-duh (misspelled intentionally) and Saddam Hussein; this is a very long list. Then say its our fault for buying pot. Thanks for nothing.

  31. The Federal government will do whatever it wants to anyone, anytime, irregardless of what anybody says,thinks, or does, and whatever criteria is proposed, they are mechanized by the budget they seek to claim for next year.
    It is law by decree under the law of rule and the guidelines constructed along the way will be made up as they go to benefit their interests and existence.
    A horrible inversion has taken place on the individual and the rights of those who seek nature for their releif.Our forefathers are turning in their graves.

  32. 47# Don Says…Yes. I will not admit that Grace Jones was not part of my indoctrination…during the early 70.s.

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