US Supreme Court Refuses To Review DEA’s Denial Of Petition That Sought To Reclassify Cannabis

United States Supreme Court yesterday declined to review a lower court ruling upholding the federal government’s classification of cannabis as a Schedule I prohibited substance that lacks medical utility or adequate safety.

In January, the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia ruled that the US Drug Enforcement Administration had acted properly when it rejected an administrative petition calling for a scientific review of marijuana’s safety and therapeutic efficacy. Petitioners had requested a hearing to determine whether existing science contradicts the federal categorization of cannabis as a Schedule I controlled substance that possesses “a high potential for abuse;” “no currently accepted medical use in treatment;” and “a lack of accepted safety for the use of the drug … under medical supervision.” The DC Court of Appeals affirmed the DEA’s position that insufficient clinical studies exist to warrant a judicial review of cannabis’ federally prohibited status. On Monday, the US Supreme Court denied an appeal to review that decision, rejecting petitioners’ argument that adequate peer-reviewed studies already exist to sufficiently contradict the plant’s placement in Schedule I – the same classification as heroin and PCP.

The DEA’s stance willfully ignores volumes of scientific studies. For example, a 2012 review of FDA-approved clinical trials assessing the safety and therapeutic efficacy of cannabis, published in The Open Neurology Journal, concluded: “Based on evidence currently available the Schedule I classification [of marijuana] is not tenable; it is not accurate that cannabis has no medical value, or that information on safety is lacking.”

The case is Americans for Safe Access et al. v. Drug Enforcement Administration, case number 13-84, in the United State’s Supreme Court.

118 thoughts

  1. In another five years or so, the DEA and Supreme Court will be racing to reschedule marijauna into the same category as alcohol and tobacco

    Alcohol and tobacco aren’t on the schedule.

    Read for the history of non-medicinal drug usage in the United States.

  2. Would this not de-facto legalize it nationally since they refuse to look at it?

    [Paul Armentano responds: SCOTUS denied an appeal to review the DC Court of Appeals court’s prior ruling upholding cannabis’ Schedule I status under federal law. Therefore, the lower court ruling stands.]

  3. is anybody else seeing the writing on the wall yet? do you really think they’ll let the police smoke pot? or airline pilots? In Florida to work in a burrito shop you need to take a drug test. domestic violence is rampant and unstoppable but they won’t let the police or airline pilots beat their wives either.

  4. I think the members of the court are old enough to have been exposed to early reefer madness. On top of that, they don’t have the intelligence to investigate what modern science and medical data have to say on the subject.

    Me thinks it is time for them to be replaced with younger smarter folks who haven’t been brainwashed and who know better than to put their faith in the biggest failure in United States history – that being the DEA!

  5. The U.S. Supreme court doesn’t want to get involved with the DEA’s Holy War on people who use Cannabis. It’s the Nixon’s sacred army with their own constitution, the Controlled Substance Act of 1970.

  6. St. George Utah and Utah state police are super corrupt. They’ll follow out of state tags and search your vehicle without warrant and get away with it. Even if you have the cash to get out and get a lawyer it’s a up hill battle that state is super corrupt and violating constitutional rights. Their state police are getting away with murder literally.
    He had time to grab a snack before running into two ladies and killing them.

  7. ‘The DC Court of Appeals affirmed the DEA’s position that insufficient clinical studies exist to warrant a judicial review of cannabis’ federally prohibited status.’

    -There are insufficient clinical studies because its a Schedule 1 drug – that status prohibits it from being studied.

  8. Since the DEA is a morphed department left over from alchohol prohibition, their indifference and control issues were brought along. Patients requesting assistance from their nation’s highest court will always fall under the large footprints of the healthcare industry and the law enforcement organizations who do not want patients to have rights over their own bodies…just look at abortion in this nation. We have taken a step backward when a woman is no longer to have control over her reproductive system once fertilization happens. Men loose their rights over their deposits once they are made, not just opening the door for more control over women.

  9. Romney lost the Presidential election because of his smelly anti-medical marijuana stance. When well over 70% of Americans agree medical marijuana should be legal, its going to be harder for politicians to be against it. Keep supporting groups like Norml that are educating the people on this issue, and vote for pro-medical marijuana politicians. In the meantime I’m sure Big-Pharma, their whore lobbyists, their whore politicians, their whore attorneys, their whore judges, and all the bastards in the prison industry who keep lining their pockets on behalf of the American Citizenry are celebrating this decision to keep medical-marijuana a schedule 1 drug.

  10. dear Scott.. you were on a roll there until your last line.. they don’t “let” anyone beat their wives… Also, I will add to your point that alcohol takes longer to effect, however, you can consume alcohol at a much higher rate, its effect is intensified with more servings, and it debilitates people to the point that they can cause death or die themselves.

  11. I think these people are so old fashion that they will never change.It has been proven that marihuana can be used for medical purposes and they need to get rid of these old farts because they are so ignorant that they can not change.If it is ever going to be legal they must replace these morons.they here drugs and they think it is bad.What about morphine and those kind of drugs that they make money from the pharmaceutical companies that pay the government and the doctors do not even tell you or know the side effects.They are just a bunch of idiots collecting high salaries off our tax money.they need to all go away!

  12. The SCOTUS denies an appeal to reclassify cannabis to a lesser scheduled drug thereby maintaining that it has no medicinal qualities and yet the US owns Patent No. 6,630,507 Cannabinoids as Antioxidants and Neuroprotectants. hmmmmm I wonder who the SC justices are really working for.

  13. I could not agree more with Keith who commented:
    “There are insufficient clinical studies because its a Schedule 1 drug – that status prohibits it from being studied.”

  14. Its official this country has gone to shit. Does anyone really believe the sur. Court. Congress, orr any of the 4 corrupted branches of government. Who stands to profit from ahca- aka Obama Care? Not the american people! Who stands to continue to profit from not passing obama care? Big pharma, medical billing companies.

    Same for marijuana, who stands to loose the most from legalizing marijuana? The goverment! All the money set aside for the failed drug war would no longer be nessasary, all the agencys that benefit from the BILLIONS being thrown at this faied drugswar, these companies will be out of buisness. Reason why is marijuana has become the center point of the war on drugs, although PROVEN not harm full, the corrupt fuckers in this government REFUSE to dislodge their heads from their ass and listen to the will of the american people. Now all their childish behavior we have a split government that shut itself down. And the only people suffering is US the AMERICAN peoplaThats all…. just us. Let’s bend over america and continue our fucking we have come acustom to .lets continue to pay for the failed war on drugs, outrageous medical cost, let’s continue to follow a small group of idiots leading us sheep into the unknown, unfunded, unfounded life of the new american dream/ nightmare. We need to take some notes from the people of Egypt, and overthrow this congress, government.

  15. I would like to add, when the truth prevails, a few billion dollars of restitution from the US government to the millions whose lives have been damaged by the false, malicious and idiotic policy toward this tonic herb.

  16. The next petition I’d like to see submitted to the DEA is for the inclusion of alcohol as a schedule 1 controlled substance. SERIOUSLY! I think it would be very enlightening to all sides of the mmj issue to see the DEA defend the safety and medicinal uses of alcohol. What exactly does it take to submit a rescheduling petition? Can anybody do it, or do you need standing?

  17. Has any of these morons on the Supreme Court ever heard of ISRAEL and their 30+ years of cannabis studies and application??
    Surely, they have heard of Israel, we only send them Billions of Dollars in aid every year. People dont talk about that WELFARE case. But thats another story. I would absolutely LOVE to ask the panel who decided against reclassifying cannabis this: If the mythical studies you old folks are going by are correct and there is no medical value….THEN WHY IN THE LIVING PISS DID YOUR BOSS THE US GOVERNMENT PATENT THE ACTIVE INGREDIENT IN CANNABIS THAT HAS PROVEN TO TREAT 100’s of conditions in a natural and safe way, safer than any BIG PHARMA pill. Big Pharma is allowed to slowly kill human beings while torturing and maiming the lab animals they use to convince the joke called the FDA to allow their poison to be sold. I have a cousin who died of hepatatis, she stopped taking her pills because they made her feel worse, she was a 4.0 student, intelligent with a huge future and she couldnt take the side effects of the 13 pills she was taking. So she died. If cannabis ever proves to help hepatitis, well YOU ANTI-FOLKS WITH YOUR SPECIAL INTERESTS HAVE MY COUSINS BLOOD ON YOUR HANDS. WE WILL NEVER KNOW IF CANNABIS COULD HAVE MADE HER SUFFERING MORE TOLERABLE AND MAYBE EVEN HELPED CURE HER. IM GLAD SOMEDAY I WILL BE ABLE TO GO PISS ON THE GRAVES OF THESE SUPREME COURT JUSTICES UPLOAD IT ON YOUTUBE FOR THE WORLD TO SEE.

  18. Everything bad in our government has been bought for and installed by manipulative assholes. We have regulations that are nearly universely ignored, while there are other like banning marijuana that grow into monsters of their own.

    Why do with allow fracking, and this War on Marijuana. Both are nothing more than degradation of our environment. We have these stupid laws getting in the way of personal advancement while at the same time inflating the costs of health care because we insist on using dangerous chemicals to treat diseases when less dangerous chemicals are easily available in the form of marijuana. And simply banning thing that actually kill people by the thousands like transfats.

    It is unconstitutional for the executive branch to ban transfats, even though they do kill thousands, if not ten of thousands of people each year. But somehow, it is “constitutional” for the executive to maintain their own for profit ban on marijuana. I don’t need to be judge to notice both things cannot be true, especially not at the same time.

  19. NORML can you please begin the conversation of the possibility of orchestrating an occupy D.C movement. It is time for not only tens of thousands of patients and people who have been thrown in jail for marijuana, but for all of our other Americans who are forced to take dangerous pain pill’s DAILY, its time for our voices to be herd. Let’s march onto thelawns & steps of the white house, and DEMAND our freedom from this drug war, demand our freedom that what we do in the safety of our own home’s, is none of the government business, none of our employers business! We the people need to stand up and take government’s boot off out throat’s, and scream together NO MORE DRUG WAR!

  20. It will be interesting to see what happens next year,if and when Sativex
    by GW pharmaceuticals gets FDA approval for their product.As far as i read,they use the same basic chemical structures that are found in the plant form:THC,CBD1, CBD2..etc.I heard that it takes up to 12 billion dollars to develop and research a new pharmaceutical drug,so GW will probably have the funded research to back up their studies for the FDA .The thing is now days,laboratories can use gas chromatography/liquid chromatography to analyze any natural cannabis flower-strain, for different cannabinoid profiles,and are being used in California and Colorado for medical patients. So the day’s of saying “marijuana in its natural form are too unpredictable” are pretty much over,unless it continues to be motivated and kept underground for prohibition,and everything that entails>

  21. @Paul

    Gotcha. I just thought by them not doing their jobs and ignoring science, meant we could ignore the whole process of legalizing it and say “Hey, since you won’t listen to reason, then we won’t listen to your reasons either” and boom, legalized.

    For example, if I sold you a car and said it was a 2006 model, and you got home and researched and found out it was actually a 2004 model and you tried to contact me about it but refused to listen, I’d get into trouble. They are saying they won’t look at this because (IDK WHY) and so shouldn’t they get into trouble for not looking at it at all?

  22. I don’t think schedule 1 is specifically the problem. The entire scheduling system is the problem and a particular agency (NIDA).

    Nixon created the Controlled Substance Act with AG John Mitchell after the Shafer Commission advised him cannabis should not carry a penalty for use and could possible treat or prevent tumors (cancer). They made up the scheduling system based on arbitrary and under-handed definitions like “accepted medical use.”

    Guess what else Nixon created? The HMO. Listen to his oval office recordings. Nixon is recorded talking about this new scheme that will make certain people obscenely rich. One can almost hear the drool pooling on his desk while he rubs his hands in “fly preparing to eat” motion.

    The HMO, or Health Management Organization, basically the very bad decision (even criminal) that privatized health care to the point that Hospitals and Insurance are in bed together with Pharma and the world’s “best” “most advanced” health care is inaccessible and overly priced.

    Back to the CSA. Schedule 1 and the NIDA are chicken-and-egg situation. On one hand, NIDA’s most explicit mission is to allow “scientific studies” to receive federal funding if their grant proposal seeks to find the harm, not any benefits of drugs.

    If there is no sufficient preponderance of scientific evidence as “clinical studies,” that is because that is NIDA’s primary job. Having created an agency that has the power to approve or shut down federally funded research. Federally funded research from unbiased researchers is how we get down to real answers. NIDA has prevented this, thus preventing “sufficient clinical evidence,” making it conveniently impossible to change the BS they keep parroting. Abolish the NIDA and let the National Science Foundation give authority to unbiased, and qualified people who were trained in science, not law school. Not long after, schedule 1 would be indefensible. Schedule 2 would also, by extension, follow the same dishonest, fallacious logic.

    Any mention of the scheduling system is an appeal to false authority because every scheduling category contradicts the other ones. Some of the most dangerous pharma pills sit in schedule 3 or 4 even toxicity in these “lower priority” schedules could be 10,000-20,000 times more toxic than cannabis, based on LD-50 (lethal dose that kills 50% of test subjects) or therapeutic ratio (the closer to 1:1 or 1:1+ the closer you approach chemotherapeutic drugs, ie. so toxic it can kill you if you take it correctly).

    Cannabis is not “harmless” because nothing is, but if there were any substance that won’t kill you directly, it’s cannabis, its LD-50 and therapeutic doses are almost irrelevant compared to other drugs, the toxic dose is astronomically high, hence, there are no reported cases of death caused directly by cannabis.

    In this case of cannabis, “potential for abuse” does not even apply because 24/7 hour use (“abuse”) won’t kill, won’t lead to crippling withdrawal, won’t make you violent enough to seek out more. In fact you’ll probably live longer and happier because you’re finally getting what all our ancestors had as a dietary supplement, external cannabinoids that support our natural endogenous cannabinoids (critical in immune function and mood regulation), that sometimes we lack our own, due to stress, toxic air food water, “legal” alcohol drugs, “legal” tobacco drugs, “legal” pharma drugs.

    If there aren’t very bad negative consequences of abuse with cannabis like with heroin-meth-crack, such that would require or “justify” imprisonment to protect people from themselves, what is the point?

    Transparent corruption, huh?

    I say it’s better to eliminate the scheduling itself, which people assume has some sort of meaning or is useful to people’s health. The FDA goes along with scheduling fraud too, but the scheduling system is not their invention, doesn’t even mention accepted standards like LD-50 and therapeutic ratio.

    Let’s take a consensus, led by the Nat’l Science Foundation, from scientists, pharmacologists, academic physician/researchers (not on pharma payroll), what they think the scheduling system is good for. Speak up! Is it consistent? Does it make sense? Can they protect people from themselves at all times or claim that?

    Wouldn’t it be humiliating for the Supreme 9 to actually have mass consensus glaring them down, from qualified people commissioned to consider the meaning of the scheduling system, and the intentional setup of NIDA to protect that system through bogus allegations from “cherry-picked” studies and thereby preventing unbiased research?

    Maybe it’s time for them to “NIDA” a new job like embezzling Salvation Army or beating up little kids as schoolyard thugs It would be a step up from embarrassing “pretend science job.”

  23. is it really shocking that the government wont allow cannabis in the court room?
    so if the DEA is rented by the government as an agency…..then it must be for sale right?
    Maybe our money should be pumped into buying the DEA from the broke government and regrouping it so cannabis isnt in there cross hairs.
    all in all
    most want to believe that cannabis will be on the legal aspect soon but the truth of it is, we may never see the truth about it because there is to much money to be made from keeping it illegal.
    THey wont give up anything they can make money off of…… either move where the laws are not so stiff or risk you and your family’s well being by wanting to use the earth in any manner that may or may not promote happiness……..the money to be made….lol….They have been making money and probably more keeping it illegal…
    good luck to all……
    As always
    thanks for reading

  24. @Jeb – Well written my friend! I totally agree that the scheduling system the Govt decided to use is not only useless, it is downright harmful!!! Seriously, how incredibly stupid to have marijuana in the most serious category while people are free to use tobacco and alcohol and myriad drugs created by big pharma legally.

    Sometimes it seems like the stupider someone is the more likely they are to get into a position of power! You mentioned Nixon and he is a perfect example of a jerky moron who became president. It boggles the mind…

  25. Here is another example of an idiot rising to a position of power. The Governor of California believes in very harsh penalties for simple possession. He, in his infinite stupidity, vetoed a bill written by a Democrat and even supported by some Republicans, which aimed to give judges and District Attorneys the discretion to charge possession of small amounts of illicit drugs for personal use as a felony or a misdemeanor as the case warrants.

    I wonder if anyone will be stupid enough to ever vote for this guy again… Unbelievable!

  26. How many respected studies have proven the medicinal efficacy of cannabis?

    How many patented aspects of cannabinoids are there?

    Why the fuck are these bureaucratic whores selling the American people short? What mind-numbing substances do these people intake that renders their judgement so stubbornly ridiculous?!

    to our ‘leaders’:

  27. “There aren’t enough trials? Well, then can we conduct some more.”
    DEA: No, we refuse to be proven wrong.
    “Can you prove yourself right, then?”
    DEA: Hell no, we’d fail trying. If we’re not wrong, then by default, we’re right.
    “So what about the third of US-States that recognize its benefits, not to mention the thousands of patients whose mere-existence after having cancer pretty much means there’s some benefit.”
    DEA: What about em? We don’t give a fuck. We’re the DEA. Think Capone, but more drunk on power than he ever was on alcohol.

  28. If you want to know why all cannabis is, and will continue to be illegal just look at Dupont Chemical Corp., and William Randolph Hearst. Putting the hemp industry out of business eliminated all of their competition in the biofuel, industrial lubricant, and fiber industries. It happened in 1937 at the height of the depression when no one was minding the store. Billionaires deciding the fate of poor people all over the world, sound familiar, this stuff never ends, and I really don’t see congress or the supreme court waking up any time soon, as long as old conservative geezers dictate policy to the younger more advanced generations there is no hope. Good, and natural medicines and industrial products will be crushed and outlawed while poisons abound, and are not even regulated by the government. If you sell legal Cannabis in Colorado or Washington state it must be packaged in a child-proof container, it must be tracked from seed to harvest to sale, it must be tested for potency and consistency, all at a cost to the producer’s and retailers, however if you invent a new industrial chemical, and patent it with the federal govt. you have no obligation whatsoever to insure that exposure to this new chemical will not harm humans or the environment. None, nothing, nada!!!! Free passes anyone,…. anyone… The petrochemical industry owns the world, all the crooked politicians, and all the law enforcement agencies, and judges bow to their superiority whether they like it or not. I’m sure many on the supreme court see the ridiculousness of the DEA policies, but they are powerless to do anything about it for fear of their own demise. Sad but true state of affairs.

    [Editor’s note: Well…not quite. There was no great conspiracy by American industrialists like DuPont and Hearst, aided and abetted by a government technocrat named Anslinger, to make cannabis and/or hemp illegal.
    Cannabis was largely made illegal a few decades before Anslinger’s arrival on the scene because of ignorance, ethnocentrism and overzealous law enforcement–not a grand hemp conspiracy.

    Documented information of the actual history of cannabis laws in America, notably in California, are found here.

    great article if you want to know why hemp is illegal

    [Editor’s note: Well…not quite. There was no great conspiracy by American industrialists like DuPont and Hearst, aided and abetted by a government technocrat named Anslinger, to make cannabis and/or hemp illegal.
    Cannabis was largely made illegal a few decades before Anslinger’s arrival on the scene because of ignorance, ethnocentrism and overzealous law enforcement–not a grand hemp conspiracy.

    Documented information of the actual history of cannabis laws in America, notably in California, are found here.

  30. Tell The Fed’s to F off. With the DEA and NSA working together all they are doing is entrapping people. Fascist Authoritarians Control Freaks. The Supreme Court won’t reclassify Marijuana. This shows that we have a Quasi American Government. You’ll be living in hiding and controlled all your life from these assholes. How many of you don’t think that your Medical Marijuana Records haven’t been Hack By The DEA and NSA

  31. Technically the catch-22 of insufficient research violates the 1st Amendment since we are trying to redress a grievance:

    Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

    But, this administration doesn’t feel bound by the Bill of Rights.

  32. Yeah, I think we should vote the supreme court out and get someone who’s actually reasonable and level headed in there!

    Oh wait, that’s right, we can’t. They’re in for life, no matter how blatantly wrong what they do is. So much for separation of power or the will of the people…

  33. re: Todd says:
    October 17, 2013 at 8:46 am

    the catch-22 of insufficient research violates the 1st Amendment
    since we are trying to redress a grievance.”


    You are correct, sir. Well played.

    Now, how do we go about filing a formal grievance?

    If we already have taken said steps to file an effective ‘grievance’, then how can we get them to label it as such?

  34. Hey check out my blog people I’m a new blogger with interesting thought on marijuana and being a liberal! looking for help on what I can do on improving. Also looking on ideas on what i can right! Comment on my blog if you have any ideas! Thanks!

  35. Apparently the judge,did no research as there are,many International studies available on the subject,proving medical affectiveness of this plant.Shame on him,or her.

  36. Everybody calm down and smoke a bowl. The Supreme Court is pro-cannabis, but they are against making decisions that are being battled out within the States. The Supreme Court policy is to not get in the way of the States from determining our own interpretions of Constitutional law. That is why they refused this case. Cannabis regulation began and will end within local governments; the prohibitionist Feds will be the last to go; but be patient; they will go if that is the exercised will of the people. That is the way our democracy works. Keep calling and donating. It’s working.
    As for the “editor’s note,” about “There was no great conspiracy by American industrialists like DuPont and Hearst, aided and abetted by a government technocrat named Anslinger, to make cannabis and/or hemp illegal.” Mr. Armentano, I fear you are entertaining an “either or” debate when the answer is “both and more.”
    Hemp will not steal the “green light” from NORML, and I hope we are not “green with envy” over whether hemp or marijuana gets to break cannabis prohibition at the Federal level.
    Check out There were real reasons to supress hemp cultivation involving the price of crude oil, plastics, nylon celullose ethanol and the list goes on.
    At the same time, you are correct that there was a national ignorance over cannabis going on 100 years ago that remains prevalent within American culture today.
    Both causes for prohibition are real. Not one or the other.
    But to deny a hemp/marijuana conspiracy among early corporations? Then who campaigned against the “Hemp for Victory campaign?” As your link suggests, why invest in prohibition in states that previously had majorities in ignorance of cannabis if not to control the price of renewable cannabis oil, pharmacy, fuel, food and fiber before it could be established?
    With a Hemp Research Amendment pending in the Farm Bill that doesn’t even distinguish marijuana from hemp, I wonder if you are being surrepticious?

  37. Wow I was just watching this documentary called Money & Medicine on Netflix.

    There’s a statistic offered that is disheartening.

    “Due to medical errors, drug interactions, and infections acquired during hospital treatment, medicine is the third largest cause of death in the US.”

    Um. Wow. Something should be done maybe?

    Medicine, as in the traditional hospital fare that is obscenely overpriced, which is meant to save and preserve life, is a leading cause of death and is bankrupting a country already on it’s toes about financial, banking crises?

    So…imo the whole facade of concern the feds use, about protecting people from serious health concerns, through the use of the criminal court system.

    3rd leading cause of death in the US. Hospital treatment.

    And they put people in prison on charges where individuals make personal decisions that affect their own bodies, and they do so at their own peril. If we are responsible for the consequences of our choices, then why persecute and terrorize the citizenry, why create organized crime just to chase them?

    That’s doing harm, not good.

    Why is money is spent on the dragged war at all, when things are that broken due to corruption, greed.

    I think the word i’m looking for here is priorities.

    When the 3rd leading cause of death is hospital treatment (the opposite of getting better), things are bad

  38. The US Federal Government patented cannabinoids as antioxidants and neuroprotectants in US Patent #6630507; it mentions Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, neurological trauma, HIV dementia, and autoimmune disorders as conditions for which cannabinoids may be indicated, and though more research is needed to determine the proper doses, routes of administration, and profiles of active compounds (e.g. terpenes [like pinene, limonene, and myrcene], flavonoids [like apigenin], and cannabinoids [like CBD, THCV, CBN, and THC]), Cannabis may be indicated as a way to treat, prevent, and/or cure numerous other conditions, including cancers, organ damage and nausea induced by chemotherapy and radiation, chemotherapy resistance, diabetes and its complications, osteoporosis, exostosis, atherosclerosis, sepsis, reperfusion injury, obesity, microbial infections (including MRSA, brain-eating amoebae, and herpes), anxiety disorders (e.g. GAD, PTSD, and OCD), stroke damage, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Tourette’s syndrome, epilepsy, autism, depression, insomnia, spasticity, dystonia, dyskinesia, acne, psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, pruritis, asthma, fibromyalgia, lupus, migraine, vascular dementia, chronic kidney disease, liver diseases, chronic pancreatitis, Crohn’s disease, colitis, IBS, Huntington’s disease, prion diseases, arthritis, MS, ALS, pain, GVHD, organ transplant rejection, sleep apnea, incontinence, and metabolic syndrome. Smoking Cannabis was found by UCLA researchers to not be linked with either lung cancer or COPD, but bronchitis was mentioned; if Cannabis were re-legalized, non-smoking methods for using it could be promoted (e.g. vapor and oral). Strains of Cannabis with low (or no) psych activity exist (e.g. CBD-rich) but Drug Prohibition hinders access to them. Cannabis has astounding medical potential beyond its psych activity. Even the worst effects of Cannabis are not as dangerous as the laws that ban it.


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    Carter, G. et al. 2010. CANNABlS and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: hypothetical and practical applications, and a call for clinical trials. The American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care. 27(5):347-56.

    Casanova, M. et al. 2003. Inhibition of skin tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo by activation of cannabinoid receptors. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 111(1):43-50.

    Cassol-Jr, O. et al. 2010. Treatment with cannabidiol reverses oxidative stress parameters, cognitive impairment and mortality in rats submitted to sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture. Brain Research. 1348:128-38.

    Comelli, F. et al. 2009. Beneficial effects of a CANNABlS sativa extract treatment on diabetes-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress. Phytotherapy Research. 23(12):1678–84.

    Crippa, J. et al. 2011. Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 25(1):121-30.

    Davison, S., and J. Davison. 2011. Is there a legitimate role for the therapeutic use of cannabinoids for symptom management in chronic kidney disease? Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 41(4):768-78.

    de Lago, E. et al. 2012. Cannabinoids ameliorate disease progression in a model of multiple sclerosis in mice, acting preferentially through CB1 receptor-mediated anti-inflammatory effects. Neuropharmacology. 62(7):2299-308.

    Di Marzo, V. 2008. The endocannabinoid system in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 51(8):1356–67.

    De Petrocellis, L. et al. 2013. Non-THC cannabinoids inhibit prostate carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo: pro-apoptotic effects and underlying mechanisms. British Journal of Pharmacology. 168(1):79-102.

    Dirikoc, S. et al. 2007. Nonpsychoactive cannabidiol prevents prion accumulation and protects neurons against prion toxicity. The Journal of Neuroscience. 27(36):9537-44.

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    Donadelli, M. et al. 2011. Gemcitabine/cannabinoid combination triggers autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells through a ROS-mediated mechanism. Cell Death and Disease. 2:e152.

    El-Alfy, A. et al. 2010. Antidepressant-like effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids from CANNABlS sativa L. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 95(4): 434-42.

    El-Remessy, A. et al. 2006. Neuroprotective and blood-retinal barrier-preserving effects of cannabidiol in experimental diabetes. The American Journal of Pathology. 168(1):235-44.

    El-Remessy, A. et al. 2010. Cannabidiol protects retinal neurons by preserving glutamine synthetase activity in diabetes. Molecular Vision. 16:1487-95.

    F(agherazzi, E. et al. 2012. Memory-rescuing effects of cannabidiol in an animal model of cognitive impairment relevant to neurodegenerative disorders. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 219(4):1133-40.

    Fernández-Ruiz, J. et al. 2011. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders. British Journal of Pharmacology. 163(7):1365-78.

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    LEAP (Law Enforcement Against Prohibition)

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    MPP (Marijuana Policy Project)

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    Naftali, T. et al. 2011. Treatment of Crohn’s disease with CANNABlS: an observational study. The Israel Medical Association Journal. 13(8):455-8.

    Namazi, M. 2005. Cannabinoids, loratadine and allopurinol as novel additions to the antipsoriatic ammunition. Journal of European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. 19(3):319-22.

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    Nok, A. et al. 1994. The trypanocidal effects of CANNABlS sativa constituents in experimental animal trypanosomiasis. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. 36(6):522-4.

    NORML (National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws)

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    . August 23, 20…

  39. If the fed and state LEOs were not stealing all their quarry has to fight in our legal system, there may have been a higher accumulation of legal data to mine, for a legal decision.

  40. How long is it going to take before people realize that federal prohibition is illegal. The feds only have authority in interstate commerce as no drug in existence is comparable to Plutonium 239. The court will not hear challenges on prohibition or drug classification because they know the laws cannot stand the test of objective measure.

    Do any of you want the Supreme court to hear the Cannabis reclassification issue if it results in the end of federal prohibition of all drugs (which it would)?

  41. also widely unknown to most Americans Marijuana was Decriminalized in Seattle, Washington in 2003 by the passing of Prop 1, which placed Marijuana at the lowest priority for Police enforcement.

    also for those wanting a great experience look into a trip to Seattle Area the 3rd weekend of August every year for the World’s Largest Pro Marijuana Gathering, The Seattle Hemp Fest!!

  42. @bongstar420

    Hell yes, I want the Supreme court to hear the Cannabis reclassification issue if it results in the end of federal prohibition of all drugs!!

    Prohibition has already proven not to reduce access to any of the drugs people are freaked out about legalizing.

    Prohibition in no way reduces chance of Over Dose from any drugs, it in my opinion increases risk of Over Dose, AIDS, and other diseases.

    Simply, because under a regulated such as State Liquor Stores etc..

    IV drug users could get new clean needles with each purchase.

    The quality and risk of bad dope would be decreased under a State regulated structure.

    Organized Street Gangs & Drug Cartels would be either out of business or forced to move into other occupations as well.

    While Marijuana Legalization & Regulated Sales will reduce Crime, Drug Crime won’t be Cut completely unless all drugs are Legalized in small quantities, and sold in State Regulated Environments.

    All the tax revenue, and reductions from legal costs and imprisonment of simple drug users. Would be simply amazing in it self.

    It’s about time this nation increases investment in Education & Core Services we’ve neglected since The New Deal.

    Instead of 800+ percent increases in Prison Facilities to house all those illegally imprisoned by This Unconstitutional War Against Our People.

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