Federal Evidentiary Hearing Regarding The Constitutionality Of Cannabis Prohibition Concludes

Federal marijuana hearingUnited States District Judge Kimberly Mueller heard testimony over the course of the past five days in regard to the constitutionality of the federal statute designating marijuana as a Schedule I Controlled Substance. At issue in this evidentiary hearing is whether the scientific literature provides a rational basis for the federal classification of the plant as a substance with “a high potential for abuse,” “no currently accepted medical use,” and a “lack of accepted safety” for use under medical supervision.

The federal government’s position was articulated in testimony provided by Dr. Bertha Madras, Professor of Psychobiology at Harvard Medical School and the former Deputy Director for Demand Reduction for the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy under President George W. Bush.

Expert witnesses for the defense who testified at the hearing were Dr. Carl Hart, Associate Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychiatry and Psychology at Columbia University in New York City, retired physician Phillip Denny, Dr. Greg Carter, Medical Director of St. Luke’s Rehabilitation Institute in Spokane, Washington, and marijuana cultivation expert and archivist Chris Conrad.

Defense counsel for the litigants were NORML Legal Committee members Zenia Gilg of San Francisco and Heather Burke of Nevada City, CA. I assisted attorneys Gilg and Burke as a consultant in the case prior to the hearing and as their principle investigator during the hearing — a point that the federal government’s attorneys insisted on making public on Wednesday by insisting the judge recognize that: “Defense counsels’ investigator is the Deputy Director of NORML; he’s not some ordinary investigator.”

Representatives from California NORML as well as writer Jeremy Daw of TheLeafOnline were in attendance during the hearing and provide day-by-day coverage of events on their respective websites and at the links below. Dr. Madras was cross-examined both Wednesday afternoon and Thursday morning.







A ruling by Judge Mueller is not anticipated until after the first of the year.

68 thoughts

  1. why so long ?

    [Paul Armentano responds: Additional legal briefs still need to be filed on the parts of legal counsel for both parties. And the Judge needs sufficient time to properly review the witnesses’ declarations, the briefs, the oral testimony, and the exhibits (studies) entered into evidence — of which there are many.]

  2. All of the members and supporters of Wyoming NORML want to thank you for all of your hard work and superlative efforts to help us Legalize. Fingers crossed that this will Fell the Feds!

  3. On the surface, it appears that the defense has won. Assuming the judge rules for the defense, then what can we, as a nation, expect? In the past, our fearless leaders (like Tricky Dick Nixon) has simply chosen to ignore any and all evidence and logic in favor of their own agenda. So, will this make any difference?

    Also, be sure to vote on November 4th for candidates that support ending the war against law abiding Americans (also known as the drug war…

    If you don’t already have it figured out, the Drug Policy Alliance has provided this for your reference:


    Generally speaking, just vote Democrat or Libertarian unless you are quite sure a Republican candidate is on the right side…

    In Virginia, please vote for Robert Sarvis!!! Mark Warner and Ed Gillespie seem to be perfectly happy to continue building the prison population.

  4. What’s in this quote just ticked me off already before I am even taking the time to go to any of the links.

    I assisted attorneys Gilg and Burke as a consultant in the case prior to the hearing and as their principle investigator during the hearing — a point that the federal government’s attorneys insisted on making public on Wednesday by insisting the judge recognize that: “Defense counsels’ investigator is the Deputy Director of NORML; he’s not some ordinary investigator.”

    So what is the principle investigator is from NORML! Like someone from the pharmaceutical industry, oil or any other big business industry never was a principle investigator!? WTF! NORML is right! What perfect timing for the judge to see which way the wind is blowing for legalization because the ruling is not until 2015. Hm! I expect the judge to rule in favor of NORML’s position even if freakin’ none of the legalization measures pass this election. All the more pressure will be on this judge to nudge things along toward legalization if legalizers don’t win big this fall. I don’t want to see the momentum come to a screeching halt, or worse yet go backwards. I don’t want prohibitionists to dismantle legalization.

  5. Regarding the election this fall, it’d be a nudge for Grimes to win and legalize cannabis in Kentucky. They already legalized hemp. Colorado can produce seeds en masse for the dry West. Washington and Oregon the rainy climate seeds. Kentucky, do the same for the East. Florida should be next to develop en masse whatever tropical strains can be grown in the South, as far north as you can get the tropical varieties to grow. I tell you Puerto Rico ought to produce some sweet sativas!

    West Coast got some states within decent driving distance for legal weed so I want a state on the East Coast. Kentucky. Sorry Maine and Florida.

  6. Indoors up north it think it would work to use fiber optics and light collection panels outside to reduce the costs of indoor lighting. Greenhouses in the winter up north are a different animal. Still’d have the heating costs for your Colorado style, now Kentucky style, indoor monitored and regulated system. $KaChing$! That’s your cash register raking in cannabis money, Kentucky! I hear Louisville is beautiful.

  7. Applause for Mr. Armentano!!!

    You deserve the praise and credit sir. I’ve been reading your columns for years and the investigative research you have provided on this blog alone has been indisputable evidence of the unconstitutionality of marijuana’s scheduling under the Controlled Substances Act. Good work man!!!

    The decision from Judge Mueller (Nov. 7th.. 19th at the latest) WILL BE DECIDED BY OUR VOTES THIS TUESDAY!!! If you have a vehicle, and you know someone who is registered, have a voting party and get people to go with you to vote! I’m talking to you Florida; I know there are people in this blog who have already volunteered for these activities, but every bit helps.

    The highlight of this case continues to be the ridiculous prosecution of the U.S. attorney who was apparently more interested in peddling marinol then paying attention to his own litigation; HE ADMITTED CANNABIS HAS MEDICAL EFFICACY UNDER OATH! IN FRONT OF JUDGE MUELLER!! For WHAT? Did he apparently FORGET that the entire premise of this case was to refute the scheduling standards of cannabis as unconstitutional? Just to say that marinol lasts longer than average weed?

    Good work NORML. I could never be more proud of the dollars I donate.

    Can’t wait for the judge’s decision on the 7th of November.

    [Paul Armentano responds: To clarify, the November dates are specific to the filing of briefs and exhibits. The judge’s decision will not be rendered until well after.]

  8. U.S. Patent 6630507 should be presented as evidence to constitute an immediate dismissal of marijuana as a class 1 controlled substance. There is no way the government can control the patent on the medicinal properties of this plant on the one hand, while incarceration people and confiscating their property for profit. It’s ludicrous and prime like me demand an immediate revocation if this plant as an illegal substance.

    [Paul Armentano responds: Yes, patent 6630507 was among the evidence presented in this hearing.]

  9. Like most people I won’t hold my breath. But I have to admit that I have a great deal of hope. Hats off to all of you in and around this effort. Your doing a wonderful job. It’s going to be just terrible waiting to hear the ruling. What a shame that our elected elite are showing the world what absolute idiots they are by defending such a truly unfounded and unjust stance. I do feel a bit sympathy for them. They have no idea just how deep a hole they’ve dug for themselves.

  10. I have enjoyed following day by day from The Leaf. I have been pleased that some people that I know are witness’ or investigating, or that Angel Reich’s case was mentioned…I felt that Normal’s legal team were exceptional…thank you all!

  11. Having to wait until December is a very small disappointment from what i just read;

    Our attorney, Zenia Gilg came armed to the teeth with irrefutable evidence! What an incredible performance! Thank you again Mr. Armentano, thank you Attorney Heather Burke, thank you NORML legal team for this historic, beautiful, climactic denoumovement to our Great American Cannabis Tragedy.

    I have neither read nor witnessed a more epic, classic example of villainous hubris from the likes of Dr.Mad-@$$-Madras (well, she DID go to four years of Evil Medical School…)
    My favorite part of Att. Gilg’s cross examination was when Gilg said,
    “So five minutes ago, these (tests on lab rats) were great data but now they’re not good numbers?”
    Gilg referred to the NSDUH population survey (yes, the U.S. Government is prosecuting the most important case of the century with a “DUH” survey), that Mad-@$$ used to cite examples from a paper Mad-@$$ wrote in her own self-titled, (get this…)

    “declaration in favor of schedule 1 status…”

    …after long awkward pause…

    (Psst… Say, Dr Mad-@$$… Next time you want to represent yourself as a witness in a Federal Case AGAINST the descheduling of marijuana? …it MIGHT be a good idea not to write a report called “DECLARATION in FAVOR of schedule 1 status.” I don’t know, it just SEEMS like it would be a smart thing for you to avoid… Yknow, since you’re arguing AGAINST descheduling marijuana under OATH and all… … ..ddddd. DUH!!!
    And YES, THANK you John Balazs, whoever you are, for posting those briefs. “Mwah! Muy Bueno!”)
    Ok, so the jist of Dr. Mad-@$$’ paper states that “marijuana has a high potential…” (pun intended? Remember euphoria is evil to this twisted bitch…)
    “…of abuse in part because…” (And heres the part no one but Mad@$$ gets) “…of its sheer potential of abuse in absolute numbers.” (…WTF does that even MEAN?!! ExPLAIN yourself evil DR LAdy!!! We dont underSTAND!!!)

    Well, while Dr Mad@$$ goes on to describe this data as “one of the most authoritative data sets available to the U.S. seeking population trends,” this is the point when author Jeremy Daw of The Leaf Online eloquently describes our NORML lawyer, Zenia Gilg, presenting the climactic game-changing evidence…

    “…The NSDUH study actually showed that number of diagnosis for cannabis use disorder remained flat from 2002 to 2012.”

    This was the point where Dr Mad@$$ “previcated” on her own evidence. And the rest is history.

    Yknow, all of us who are involved with NORML, who blog here, donate, vote and smoke or vaporize there… We know the U.S.-born evidence of marijuana ‘s medicinal efficacy was as blatantly obvious as, well, per SE, a severely epileptic child playing happily without seizures less than 30 minutes after ingesting a Charlottes Web strain of marijuana high in CBD’s… Just to cite one example off the top of most of American minds today…

    But the way you brought this testimony forth, Mr. Armentano… Gilg and the whole NORML legal team… Was truly an act of brilliant artistry gathered clearly from YEARS of intense research and experience… And when Gilg asked Mad@$$… “Why didnt you just consult the evidence that NORML had published and accumulated?…”
    Ahhh… Perfecion!!

    …i’m kissing bundled, waving finger tips.. “Mwah! Bravo! Excepcional!”
    America and the world are truly indebted to your dedicated, professional, HARD work, and i for one couldn’t be more proud to be a member of NORML as we witness this paradigm shift in our nation’s dark long battle with prohibition.
    We are witnessing history in the making folks… Elections Tuesday… The hearing Friday… Then by the time December rolls around, the Supreme Court will have prepared for the inevitable appesl just while Attorney General Eric Holder makes one last executive order before retiring…

    Where there is darkness there must be light… Thank you. May God Bless NORML, and God Bless the United States of America.

  12. Its so obvious the scheduling system is wrong that i wonder if this case is going to bring down the foundation of the C.S.Act.? Im ridiculing Dr. Madr@$$… But of course we know the drug war never “failed ” for prohibitionists,” and we know that its really not the hubris alone that has brought the downfall of these paid witnesses for the government that defend the schedule 1 status… It has been American fear and ignorance that has been exploited and used against itself… For far too long until now. So perhaps the shared celebration behind this marvelous court battle is the awakening of the American people… The fact that we are participating in our Democracy and doing what is right to fairly and legally regulate marijuana and spend the revenue on education… Despite the evil condemnation of lies we have witnessed from the corrupted, subverted and corporately purchased Devil’s advocates of our own government, we are representing our government for legalization by donating to NORML, voting for legalized marijuana and creating Democracy anyway.
    But if i had to pick a better moment in time where a legal battle coincided so well with an election to provide civil rights to the disenfranchised, the disproportionately incarcerated, the sick or the poor, i just cant compare it to anything I’ve ever experienced or even read about in such a relatively short while (75 years of prohibition is a long @$$ time but remember the Holy Roman Empire didn’t fall until 300 years after Jesus was crucified, and Emperor Constantine wasn’t exactly like the world’s most peaceful, un prohibitive replacement. I’d say we’re making good time.)

    Cannabis legalization affects so many different people on so many different levels from veterans affairs, to family farms, quality of life, international Democracy and peace, energy, fuel, nutrition, sustainability, building materials and treatment for everything from cancer to evil politicians… I suppose we really ought to be thanking our Creator for cannabis and our ancestors for cultivating a gift that could cure us from ourselves and our own evil ambitions to prohibit peace for profit.
    After 45 years of a so called “War on Drugs,” the ultimate substance the Controlled Substance Act was attempting to control was ourselves… And we are proving to the cartels in our own government that they too will want this freedom for their own children; for once again the slavedriver has enslaved himself… Or in the case of Dr. Mad@$$, HERself… Because it is the lies and fear of institutionalized prohibition that are the real threat to the safety of our children and the quality of our lives. When we choose not to fairly trade and regulate a commodity we are effectively sanctioning and empowering a violent black market that can purchase the administrations and representatives of our hard earned Democracy; representatives who would sooner sell our children for profit than provide them an education.
    We can stop this madness. Print out your local NORML voter’s guide. Pass out copies in classrooms, in the street, and on neighborhood billboards. Let people know about what NORML is doing in the U.S. Government v. Pickard et al. The gratification of being part of the solution is extremely rewarding, both personally… And well… All of U.S. Prohibition IS at stake. Seems like motivation enough for me.

  13. Thank You for the work you are doing. Marijuana prohibition is doing more harm to America than Marijuana use has or ever will do. Because of the work that you and others like you are doing the truth is coming out. Take this all the way to the Supreme Court if you must and let me know if I can help I cannot contribute much financially but I will try to.

  14. I think it’s even more in favor for cannabis they have the Deputy Director of NORML as investigator. Would they rather have an investigator that has absolutely no clue on where to begin investigations in favor of this? OH WAIT IM SORRY! They wish!
    You know the saying right? Wish in one hand ….

  15. It does not matter what those out of touch decide about this issue, I will still smoke it no matter what. and I will sell every chance I get.

  16. congress can make no laws regarding the estaglishment of any one religion or deny the free practice of religion by making millions of people criminals subject to imprisonment,search seizure and fines for pursuit of beliefs held to with religious adore,faith and conviction denying constitutiomally protected rights imposing institutionalized government notions of morality qnd medicine our constitution is being ignored

  17. Speaking of controlled drug schedules…the State of N.H. never properly formed or published their controlled drug schedule. ( I have court documents / judges decision verifying this, that “no local schedule exists”)

    Then they tried to clandestinely change their law in 2011 regarding notifying the public of what is and is not a controlled drug in N.H. by burying the changes to their law regarding publication of laws (RSA 21:32) in the Governors budget bill.

    In short, I have the entire legal logic worked out proving that since the government didn’t notice the public in N.H. that there has been a “void for vagueness” legal issue. In other words technically speaking no controlled drug schedule exists in N.H. now and CERTAINLY did not exist PRIOR TO July 2011.

    Yes this is legit. Has it mattered? No…not yet.

  18. I believe the judge will make a wise decision and do what is right by the nation. The time has come to make real progress and change.

  19. Thank you, Miles, for the succinct breakdown! I looked at that thing and…well, it’s not really a great voter guide, IMO. It’s great as background information on why someone might be on there as a “yes” for our cause, but I would have liked a nice, easy little summary. Maybe a page or two, organized by state, with maybe a little citation of a pdf page number for those who want more information. There are plenty of people who would be turned off by having to wade through all of that, who are interested in voting for candidates who are against the Drug War and against MJ prohibition, but aren’t nearly interested enough to, say, read or even sift through a dissertation on each and every candidate in each and every state just to find out who to vote for.

    Well, no fears for me, I guess. I always vote a straight Dem ticket.

  20. That is definitely blowing my mind though. Our side’s evidence can’t be trusted because our investigator is with NORML? What, as opposed to the people on the other side, every one of whom has a deep financial or reputational priority to maintain the Drug War status quo, who literally make billions of dollars from the Drug War? Like Big Alcohol, Big Tobacco, Big Rehab, and the oft-overlooked Big Drug Testing?

    (Look it up–the first guy to legally challenge the CO law in 2012, before the year was even up, was the owner and CEO of a drug testing company, and by “legally challenge” I mean “used his money and clout to try and have the law summarily overturned on his own say-so”. Or maybe his reason was “it should be summarily overturned because Uncle Sam, Drug War, Schedule 1 status, etc.” which also amounted to “on my say-so” because he was a former DEA stooge. And the drug testing industry is one of the primary places Drug War stooges like DEA agents end up when they retire…yet this seems to be almost universally ignored, even though it is clearly one of the predominant enemies to our cause. ARGH! Is this just because of all the useful idiots aka marijuana exceptionalists who notice freely that drug testing drives people directly from MJ to “hard” drugs due to the near impossiblity of detecting hard drugs due to their tiny detection window, yet still think drug testing is “important” for “keeping us safe”, and have zero ability to logically process any of these facts to come to the only logical conclusion–that even if you oppose “hard” drugs, drug testing is entirely ineffective as a weapon to stop “hard” drug use, either in or outside of the workforce, and as such does not and has never had any positive effect on safety of any kind?)

  21. Can’t imagine Cannabis retaining the absurd qualifications of a schedule 1 after this. This is decades overdue, we will be waiting diligently for 2015…

  22. @Oracle & Demonhype,

    I wouldnt worry so much about the government’s prosecution of alleged bias over Mr. Armentano’s role as lead investigator. Judge Mueller has already accepted the evidence collected and cited by NORML to be filed friday as exhibits in the case starting this Friday. The very fact that a Federal judge has allowed to hear the evidence was shocking enough. With testimony over-with the government has to come up with an objection; and if they HAD one it would have already been used during the hearing. Don’t lose faith; NORML and Armentano have been preparing for a case like this for a LONG time; Finally we have a Federal judge willing to hear the truth.
    Im looking forward to a Supreme Court willing to hear the case due to more than %50 of the U.S. Population voting in pro cannabis legislation this Tuesday.
    By the way, thank you again Me. Armentano for updating us that patent 6630507 was used as evidence in this case. That’s enough evidence to sanction the U.S. Government with… DEA director Michelle Leonhart and the Secretary of Health should be quaking in their boots now…

  23. Now while i say “dont worry,” i cant help but mention the line where Dr. Mad-@$$ Madras “grins” while she “conjectures,” that,
    “Perhaps… People who use marijuana begin with abnormal brains.”
    Perhaps with subjective BIAS like that regurgitating from the government’s leading researcher and “expert” witness, we can all collectively agree whose statements were based on well founded science and allow for some vindication as to why our NORML founders chose their acronym? Here we are, 14 years into the 21st century, and THIS is the BEST the governments’ lead witness can pull out of her anti-euphoric @$$?
    I just want to take this time to thank our NORML founders who named this great organization, and thank LeafOnLine.com for their excellent coverage from this regretfully untelivised revolution… The descriptions of facial expressions were some of the best testimonials I’ve read in this whole case! Regretfully…
    The revolution will not be televised!
    (Hey, but the elections will…)

  24. For those of us following the involvement of patent 6630507 in this case, it was covered by:
    CaNorml.org… But we’ll have to press for the report.
    Dr. Gregory Carter, a highly decorated physician who among his many accolades is a fellow in the American Academy of Cannabinoid Medicine, ( the first i have ever heard of this organization). Unlike the government ‘s only witness, Dr.Madras, Dr. Carter has real experience studying patients who have used the synergetic combination of cannabinoids found in the plant medicine cannabis. Dr. Madras would like to have us believe that “medicine” is only defined as “single-compound” patentable chemicals she has only read about in her un-euphoric, self deprecating existence, (she openly refused a “buzz” … Presumably an alcoholic invitation… after the last day’s testimony from her U.S. Attorney… A real sado-masochistic bitch for Big-Pharma if i ever saw one. Canorml has a picture of her in their blog).
    Dr. Carter said, “There is no rational basis to treat marijuana as a class 1 substance.”
    People, you HAVE to read CaNOrml.org’s “Day one Testimony over Federal Marijuana Rescheduling Hearing.” U.S. Attorney Gregory Broderick drilled Dr. Carter asking if he was an “activist” or affiliated with NORML, to which Dr. Carter responded he was”not an activist,” however, “I have a lot of respect for NORML,” and co-wrote CaNORML’s “Medical Marijuana Handbook.”
    U.S. Attorney Broderick even had the nerve to ask Dr. Carter, on our tax dollars, “Have you ever said that you believe the U.S. Government is at war with it’s own people over marijuana policy,” to which Dr. Carter rightfully answered “yes.”
    The inquiry into activism by Broderick revealed that Dr. Carter was contracted by the government to deschedule marijuana to schedule II status. (A foreshadowing of where the appeals to this case will lead?)
    While i unfortunately could not find specific mention of patent 6630507 from CaNORML’s excellent day 1 coverage (snuck in the Friday before last in attempt to avoid an “OJ” like court trial, there is a great paragraph on our attorney Zenia Gilg cross examining Broderick over studies on “marijuana plant” medicine having more effectiveness than “single compound” synthetic varieties of cannabinoids.
    Which brings up the whole point of patent 6630507, the 3 patents of cannabinoids owned by GW Pharmaceuticals, and perhaps even the whole legality of patenting cannabinoids at all. What is most interestingly on trial here in the U.S. V . Pickard et al is the very idea that single compounds of cannabinoids are any more medicinally effective than the synergetic use of the entire panacea that the marijuana plant produces. I had read this line of of questioning before on this blog by Armentano. Of course, anyone who has ever tried marijuana and a pill for anything knows that there is something inherently flawed by removing the medicinal value of an herb by reducing it into a single-molecule, patentable-for-profit pill. How many side effects my love? Let me count the ways…
    But I am surprised and relieved to read this argument over pills, herbs side-effects and medical efficacy is happening in this particular trial.

    This case, at minimum, will result in the descheduling of marijuana into schedule II. (Body language from the judge suggests she is trying to hold a poker face while being revolted by the government’s prosecution).
    What will develop from here is a reexamination of the entire Controlled Substance Act, culminating, eventually, into a Bill of Patient’s Rights that will allow home grown marijuana on a Federal Level as we continue to question as a society why we keep allowing the FDA and the DEA to determine that pills with lethal side effects are somehow legally secure in lieu of a plant that has killed no one in all recorded human history. Or hey, how’ bout letting doctors and patients decide whats best for themselves? FINALLY, the science is being heard.
    Who knows? Perhaps we may even recognize as a nation in this descheduling process the hypocrisy of legally regulating marijuana while the Department of Health and Human Services continues to separate families for profit using the harmless, self-medicating posession of marijuana as unconstitutional justification? One can only keep donating to NORML and vote on Tuesday. God Bless NORML.

  25. I realize this will be the first step in forcing the DEA to remove marijuana from Schedule 1 but if the court rules that it doesn’t belong in Schedule 1 does it open up appeals for every MMJ inmate in federal prisons?

  26. I’ve been ‘testing’ cannabis for 47 years. The only bad experience I’ve ever had was spending 5 years in Federal Prison for a pot offense. Other than that, all things hunky-dory…

  27. I read somewhere that Madras described ‘drugs of abuse’ as any drug that caused euphoria. So the first thing I did was look up the definition for the word.

    Euphoria; a feeling of great happiness and excitement.

    New Latin, from Greek, from euphoros healthy, from eu- + pherein to bear
    And here’s a little something from the Declaration of Independence.

    We hold these truths to be sacred & undeniable; that all men are created equal & independent, that from that equal creation they derive rights inherent & inalienable, among which are the preservation of life, & liberty, & the pursuit of happiness.

    Say what you will about the ‘intentions’ of the founding fathers, but it seems very clear to me that if marijuana makes me happy, I should be able to smoke it. If I’m not breaking any other laws (ie, selling drugs, giving them to children, stealing stuff, killing people, etc), then marijuana use should be protected by the constitution.

    We are a country of free people. That police in our country arrest people and take all their possessions every day because of a plant is unthinkable! It reeks of greed and corruption.

  28. It will remain schedule one, proving that the judicial branch is every bit as corrupt as the executive and legislative branches.

  29. We all know that cannabis will remain schedule I, proving that the judicial branch is just as corrupt as the legislative and executive branches even at the federal level.

    Its just a matter of what excuse they will use to justify continued illegality, like they did with state medical marijuana laws.

  30. Julian, “Say what you will about the ‘intentions’ of the founding fathers, but it seems very clear to me that if marijuana makes me happy, I should be able to smoke it. If I’m not breaking any other laws (ie, selling drugs, giving them to children, stealing stuff, killing people, etc), then marijuana use should be protected by the constitution.”

    Yes, it really is a shame both major parties “forgot” all about this, in fact they even used the fact “marijuana makes negros and other degenerate races think they are as good as white men”. Oh, that is very well and truly protected by our constitution. They are literally saying “white men can have access to happiness and believe you are a full person”.

    They really did vote to make marijuana illegal on the basis it makes “some people happier than others”. I.e. it making white men sad because now their daughters don’t care if their boyfriend is white or not. And now they have to “complete” fairly with black men, some of whom are their superiors. It just makes whitey all sad 🙁

    They actually accused marijuana of helping to cure racism!!!!!!! I.e. mind expansion. That marijuana helps people overcome mental blocks? Is that really a bad thing? I’m really amazed how these folks actually said that less racist behavior in the general population is a threat to national security. Just mental and very immoral.

  31. How would the change in category affect people with records for marijuana and the trucking industry? Would the pre-employment or random drug test be change for those tested positive in the pass?

  32. What are the implications of this ruling for citizens if it removed from schedule 1?

    -Will we still be drug tested for employment?
    -Can we posses it at any time?

  33. If removed from schedule 1: 1. How would this affect commercial trucking. 2. Would it change any positive test for employment. 3. How would this affect any drug test for marijuana levels.

  34. A ruling in favor of the plant remaining a schedule 1 would be blatant evidence of corruption after the opposition admits under oath that there are medical benefits. This will stir a public rage and I, for one, will have my torch and pitchfork ready!!!!!!

  35. It will be nice to see if this comes out in favor of objectivity or what. I can see them breaking on cannabis, but they will almost certainly hold out for the general idea that drugs are bad and prohibition is justified in some cases of psychotropic substances. They will definitely not admit that they have no authority to prohibit non-interstate commerce drug activity.

  36. Mr. Armentano,

    This question may of already been presented in the comments, but if it has, I missed it! In your opinion, what is the best possible outcome of these hearings once the decision has come forth?

  37. look it dont matter what race u are black white iv been put in jail just becuse of marjuna i was just walking down the street the cop came up to me found weed in my pocket put me in cuffs and of to jail i went locked up with mureders child molesters gange members scum of this world i never hurt no one dont do no one wrong i am respectful to everyone but beening i smoke weed and proud of it in the goverments eyes im lower then them hat fair thay got the gun to our head thay got the gun to our head and thay will pull the triger if it suits them

  38. De-scheduling cannabis from 1 to two will result in 0 .

    Gordian knots must always be severed.

    The single undeniable instrument needed to sever the legal Gordian Knot is the total end of cannabis Prohibition….No?…Maybe?…Probably?…and finally…of course!

  39. Schedule I

    Schedule I drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. Schedule I drugs are the most dangerous drugs of all the drug schedules with potentially severe psychological or physical dependence. Some examples of Schedule I drugs are:

    heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy), methaqualone, and peyote

    Schedule II

    Schedule II drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a high potential for abuse, less abuse potential than Schedule I drugs, with use potentially leading to severe psychological or physical dependence. These drugs are also considered dangerous. Some examples of Schedule II drugs are:

    cocaine, methamphetamine, methadone, hydromorphone (Dilaudid), meperidine (Demerol), oxycodone (OxyContin), fentanyl, Dexedrine, Adderall, and Ritalin

    Schedule III

    Schedule III drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a moderate to low potential for physical and psychological dependence. Schedule III drugs abuse potential is less than Schedule I and Schedule II drugs but more than Schedule IV. Some examples of Schedule III drugs are:

    Combination products with less than 15 milligrams of hydrocodone per dosage unit (Vicodin), Products containing less than 90 milligrams of codeine per dosage unit (Tylenol with codeine), ketamine, anabolic steroids, testosterone

    Schedule IV

    Schedule IV drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a low potential for abuse and low risk of dependence. Some examples of Schedule IV drugs are:

    Xanax, Soma, Darvon, Darvocet, Valium, Ativan, Talwin, Ambien

    Schedule V

    Schedule V drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with lower potential for abuse than Schedule IV and consist of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics. Schedule V drugs are generally used for antidiarrheal, antitussive, and analgesic purposes. Some examples of Schedule V drugs are:

    cough preparations with less than 200 milligrams of codeine or per 100 milliliters (Robitussin AC), Lomotil, Motofen, Lyrica, Parepectolin

    (source DEA)

  40. If prohibition is lifted, how would any it affect pre-screening drug test and all test that was positive result for THC in the pass. Would it be billed and void. Especially in the transportation, trucking industry?

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