Marijuana: A Primer

[1] Russo et al. 2008. Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from central Asia. Journal of Experimental Botany 59: 4171-4182.

[2] Pacher et al. 2006. The endocannbinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmaceutical Reviews 58: 389-462.

[3] Izzo et al. 2009. Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 30: 515-527.

[4] Chen et al. 2010. Analytical characterization of Hempseed oil from eight regions in China. Journal of Dietary Supplements 2: 117-129.

[5] U.S. Congressional Research Service. Hemp as an Agricultural Commodity. January 2005.

[6] Mitch Earleywine. Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence. Oxford University Press: 2002.

[7] Robert Melamede. 2005. Harm reduction – The cannabis paradox. Harm Reduction Journal 2: 17.

[8] Ethan Russo. Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD): Can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions? Neuroendocrinology Letters 25: 31-39.

[9] Pacher et al. Op cit.

[10] Wayne Hall. A comparative appraisal of the health and psychological consequences of alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, and opiate use. National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales, 1995.

[11] Earleywine. Page 143. Op cit.

[12] Wang et al. 2008. Adverse effects of medical cannabinoids: A systemic review. CMAJ 178: 1669-1678.

[13] Hampson et al. 1998. Cannabidiol and THC are neuroprotective antioxidants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95: 8268-8273.

[14] Sarfarez et al. 2008. Cannabinoids for cancer treatment: progress and promise. The Journal of Cancer Research 68: 339-342.

[15] Joy et al. Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. National Academy Press, 1999. Page 5.

[16] Leslie Iverson. 2005. Long-term effects of exposure to cannabis. Current Opinion in Pharmacology 5: 69-72.

[17] Pletcher et al. 2012. Association between marijuana exposure and pulmonary function over 20 years. JAMA 307: 173-181.

[18] Sidney et al. 1997. Marijuana use and cancer incidence. Cancer, Causes & Control 8: 722-728.

[19] Hashibe et al. 2006. Marijuana use and the risk of lung cancer and upper aerodigestive tract cancer: results of a population-based, case-control study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention 15: 1829-1834.

[20] Marc Kaufman. “Study finds no cancer-marijuana connection,” Washington Post. May 26, 2006.

[21] Chaiton et al., 2021. Are vaporizers a lower risk alternative to smoking cannabis? Canadian Journal of Public Health [online ahead of print]. 

[22] Hazekamp et al. 2006. Evaluation of a vaporizing device (Volcano) for the pulmonary administration of tetrahydrocannabinol. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 95: 1308-1317.

[23] Abrams et al. 2007. Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery system: a pilot study. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 82: 572-578.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Spindle et al. 2019. Acute pharmacokinetic profile of smoked and vaporized cannabis in human blood and oral fluid. Journal of Analytical Toxicology.