Updated And Expanded: NORML’s Emerging Clinical Applications For Cannabis & Cannabinoids

NORML is pleased to present the latest expanded/updated edition of the publication Emerging Clinical Applications for Cannabis & Cannabinoids — a comprehensive review of the latest peer-reviewed science specific to the safety and therapeutic efficacy of whole-plant cannabis and/or its components.

The 2015 updated edition includes two additional disease profiles (Parkinson’s disease and PTS) and includes summaries of an additional 50+ relevant clinical and/or preclinical trials specific to cannabinoids’ therapeutic utility. Several existing sections, such as Chronic Pain, Diabetes, and Epilepsy, have been significantly expanded since the last edition (January 2013). Also updated is the Introduction to the Endocannabinoid System (authored by Dustin Sulak, DO) and Why I Recommend Medical Cannabis (authored by Estelle Goldstein, MD).

With summaries and citations of well over 250 recent peer-reviewed studies, this updated publication is one of the most thorough and up-to-date source-books available specific to documenting the established therapeutic qualities of cannabis. The updated publication is available online here.

Individual sections of this publication may be accessed at the links below:

Author’s Introduction
Introduction to the Endocannabinoid System
Why I Recommend Medical Cannabis
Alzheimer’s Disease
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Chronic Pain
Diabetes Mellitus
Gastrointestinal Disorders
Hepatitis C
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Huntington’s Disease
Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA)
Multiple Sclerosis
Parkinson’s Disease
Post-Traumatic Stress
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Sleep Apnea
Tourette’s Syndrome

19 thoughts

  1. This is so great to see NORML compiling all this information, but I can’t help but feel like it’s missing a lot.

    This seems to cover a lot of major illnesses which don’t have any other adequate treatment, but it ignores the countless things for which cannabis is simply the most natural (and often most effective) treatment such as menstrual cramps, insomnia, general nausea or headaches….

    Maybe it would be too long to list every little thing for which cannabis has been shown to be an effective treatment, but it would be nice some day to have a complete (and continually updated) list of every potential medicinal benefit of cannabis.

    But regardless of this, my thanks to Paul and whomever else was involved in putting this publication together. This will be a great resource for the community overall.

  2. Sorry, but that’s just not “enough” “known medical use” for marijuana to be removed from Schedule I. (too sarcastic?)

  3. I’d add depression, malaise and glaucoma to Gweedo’s list. Will be glad when everyone realizes the wonderful benefits cannabis can provide in addition to just getting a high.

    [Paul Armentano responds: To clarify, this publication is not meant to be exhaustive. Its focus is specific to recent peer-reviewed science. In cases like nausea the science is well established and dates back decades. In some other cases, like depression, the data is primarily anecdotal.]

  4. What about neuropathy? My mother has it in her legs pretty bad and cbd oil seems to be making it worse. Why would this be? And she’s also getting cramps in her toes. Any suggestions?

    [Paul Armentano responds: The Chronic Pain section addresses the relevant science specific to cannabinoids and neuropathy.]

  5. Today is September 3rd. Did the administration respond to “Senators Press Feds for Answers Regarding the State of Medical Marijuana Research” by August 31st?

  6. Paul, have a hard-cover copy made for the desks of Grassley and Feinstein. Then place a copy of the recent National Geographic “weed” covered over the coffee tables to the entrance of their offices. Then buy them a subscription of The Cannabist to their DC and home offices. Finally, let’s research their family medical history and send them literature on specific treatment from the consumption of marijuana. That oughtta speed up their “Federal inquiries.” 🙂

  7. Lung disease….3rd leading cause of death in the USA. But it looks like people with lung issues can’t be helped by MJ because lung issues are never mentioned in all these long lists of conditions it helps. (rarely you may see asthma mentioned)

    Are there no CBD receptors in the human lung? Is the lung the only part of the body not helped by marijuana?

  8. Prohibition has devastated families, enriched the prison industrial complex, enabled excuse mongering to permit ceasing personal property without due processes, and leaving destitute whole communities victim of policing for profit.

  9. @Jane’s lung question is a reminder that by SUBSTITUTING FOR TOBACCO cannabis can PREVENT a monster percentage of lung pathologies, thus whether it helps cure them would be moot, legalization offers decisive benefit.

    (Substitution 2: VAPE NOT BURN.

    Substitution 3: 25-mg World Single Toke Convention, Handmake-It-Yourself Flexdrawtube One-hitter industry to replace obsolete 500-mg Joint and 700-mg $igarette formats.)

  10. Don’t you get it? All the legal shit is killing us! Tobacco, liquor, cigs, sugar, all the food ADDITIVES, fracking, smoke in air, from planes, cars, rockets, trains, factories, pharmaa drugs and on and on. And one little plant, that make 99.9 percent of users happy, non violent, sociable,etc. Think!

  11. @ Jane,

    Here is a link from NORML reporting on marijuana and lung cancer earlier this year;

    Study: Long Term Cannabis Exposure “Not Associated With Significant Effects On Lung Function”. Thursday, 15 January 2015. “[T]he pattern of marijuana’s …
    norml.org/…/study-long-term-cannabis-exposure-not-associated-with- significant-effects-on-lung-function

    Incidentally, you can always search these blog archives rather rapidly using the custom google search at the top right hand of your screen. You might be surprised at all of the studies that Mr. Armentano has collected on this blog alone.

    As Mexweed pointed out, the majority of the real science available about marijuana and lung cancer prevention relates to the ability of cannabis to break the nicotene addiction from smoking tobacco cigarettes. I know it worked for me when I was 18, and apparently it worked for Willie Nelson back when he was 18 too.

    With that said, to answer your question more directly, yes, the lungs have CB2 receptors.


    “There are currently two known subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, termed CB1 and CB2.[5][6] The CB1 receptor is expressed mainly in the brain (central nervous system or “CNS”), but also in the lungs, liver and kidneys”

    Cannabinoid receptors are activated by cannabinoids, generated naturally inside the body (endocannabinoids) or introduced into the body as cannabis or a related synthetic compound.[10]

    Certain tumors, especially gliomas, express CB2 receptors. CB2 selective agonists are effective in the treatment of pain, inflammatory diseases (in animal models),[31][36] osteoporosis[31] and atherosclerosis.[37] CB1 selective antagonists have previously been used for weight reduction and smoking cessation (see Rimonabant). Activation of CB1 provides neuroprotection after brain injury.(Which could open up a whole new conversation about American football from 1st grade on and the pending NFL concussion settlements…)

    Marijuana seems most effective in treating inflammations of the lungs, especially those involving auto-immune or hereditary genetic disorders. Cannabinoids in cannabis mimic our own endocannabinioids to such perfection that they help our organs operate properly especially when for whatever reason, our pituitary, thyroid and endocannabinoid system fails to produce an adequate supply on our own.

  12. you still didn’t put OCD on this list. its on the same spectrum as tourettes and there are studies for it as well.

    thanks for being thorough /s

  13. “could be a host of reasons why the CBD is not helping your Mother’s Neuropathy; I would try something more like Vitamin B-Complex daily; take a half a tablet to start w/water.”

  14. “been known since 1856* B Vitamins “cure diseases” you can get B_Vitamins from food like Brown Rice or Supplements @ pharmacy”; AR

  15. “B-Vitamins are called “food for the nerves””; as Green Tea “extends DNA + RNA”; B-Vitamins restore “nerves”: “try some MJ Tea”; mix the Tea with cranberry juice”; AR’51

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