The Courts are AWOL in the War on Marijuana Smokers

When one looks at many other important public policy debates in this country, at some point the courts can and must step in to render a decision that changes the entire debate, and corrects an injustice with the stroke of a pen. In our system of government, the courts have co-equal standing with the legislative and the executive branch, and can overrule an offensive or unfair policy based on Constitutional principles.

Perhaps the most important example of these modern decisions was Brown v. Board of Education, in 1954, in which a unanimous Supreme Court overruled the separate-but-equal policy of racial segregation in public schools, finding “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” and declared the policy as a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, paving the way for integration. Next came Griswald v. Connecticut, in 1965, when the Supreme Court first identified a Constitutional right to privacy, overturning laws making the use of birth control a crime . Although the Bill of Rights does not explicitly mention “privacy”, Justice William O. Douglas wrote for the majority that the right was to be found in the “penumbras” and “emanations” of other constitutional protections.

Similarly, in 1967 the Supreme Court struck down state laws known as miscegenation laws, that made it a crime for interracial couple to marry, finding those laws a violation of both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. And in 1973, in Roe v. Wade, the court, based on the right to privacy found in the Fourteenth Amendment, ended the ban on abortions, permitting a women to decide whether to terminate her pregnancy.

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34 thoughts

  1. What about a lawsuit demanding alcohol be banned as equally as marijuana? One could argue the health and social harms of marijuana are much greater. In every way the lawyers could show how alcohol is more dangerous. For example, overdoses, imparement while driving, health risks, etc.

  2. Once again I say “Thank God for NORML”!!!

    Our Govt has been completely unwilling to face facts and do the right thing. It is a very sad thing that we the people must continue to fight this injustice and deadly assault on our liberties.

    It is incredible that even President Obama has said he is not in favor of legalization. I truly find that hard to believe and therefore, tend to think the president is simply not wanting to face the opposition that I’m sure the Republican Congress would give him…

    That said, I’d like to see most of the Republican Congress members replaced with decent citizens that don’t accept bribes and truly do what is right for our country.

  3. Government has trouble admitting they are wrong about anything. They do not want to kill all the police jobs all at once. The Justice department is incompetent on purpose. The governments at all levels should be sued for over a trillion dollars for all the lives they have ruined and property they have seized by keeping this racket based on flat out lies going. Oh I FORGOT THEY ARE LOOKING INTO IT! Do not hold your breath for our political system to right a wrong! They make more money by going slow!

  4. Cannabis Prohibition is taking a passive approach by having the appointed judges waiting it out the political changes that are growing rapidly. The untouched cannabis (marijuana) policy in the “Controlled Substance Act of 1970” is their anchor of hope to rise back in power to bring back control in their own way.

  5. I was unaware of the ‘Wootton Report’ and its findings. Sounds a lot like what happened with the Schaeffer report in the USA.

    Reproducible results! Both the content of the reports and the reaction of government officials.

    People who think their political ideology transcends science mystify and disgust me. They also cost us all big bucks wasting tax proceeds on whimsical, sometimes counterproductive policies.

  6. I understand the thinking, but I don’t think it is tactful to put this discussion on the same level as racial segregation, women’s health rights. Those things affect whole groups of people, groups of people who have no say about who they are, and yet have that held against them. Cannabis use is a choice. Do I think a person should be free to do so? Absolutely, but if I have to choose between legal cannabis, or protecting women’s access to healthcare, I’m going to choose the latter. If I have to choose between legal cannabis, and assuring access to public schools for all minor citizenry, again I will choose the latter. Obviously these two issues are not completely settled, or we wouldn’t still be hearing about them all these years later, they would just be taken for granted.

    The other thing I would consider, is that bringing marijuana before THIS Supreme Court, would be a strategic blunder. The courts whose decisions you quoted were not the 2014 SCOTUS. The 2014 SCOTUS is the one who thinks corporations are people, the one who thinks ownership have the right to impose their religious beliefs on employees, and a number of other terrible ideas. There is no way this SCOTUS would stand up for anything, but if it were brought to them and lost then there is an anti-cannabis precedent established by SCOTUS, and good luck having that overturned.

  7. Thank you Keith,
    For another excellent article on topic, keeping us in the cannabis community on our toes about how the climax of our Great American Cannabis Tragedy will soon come to pass.
    One word:


    Once they change their Constitution to go full into legalization of cannabis this November, there will be more than enough electoral votes and undeniable momentum for legalization to be heard by the Supreme Court.
    The Supreme Court is pro-marijuana legalization…
    …the Supreme Court wouldn’t “DARE” hear a privacy case, much less a state’s rights dispute, unless the MAJORITY of states are firmly and safely in the folds of legalization. There are a variety of reasons for this too long to get into in one blog.
    In many ways, the Supreme Court has been setting up the goal posts for ending prohibition… (While Congress, the ONDCP, the DEA and Prohibition lobbies keep moving the goal post around). One example of this preparation by the S.C. was reducing sentencing for users of crack cocaine. One of the biggest tasks at hand for the Supreme Court Justices is not to interpret the Constitution; that part is OBVIOUS. The real question is what do we do with all the people we have in prison and under prosecution RIGHT NOW under non-violent marijuana possession charges? How many cases get overturned? Who stays in jail? Perhaps most controversial; How many lawsuits do we allow against law enforcement, Congress and the Federal government? Lately the Supreme Court has been defending law enforcement in all kinds of cases involving police brutality. As awful as it sounds, is this deliberate preparation for ending prohibition perhaps?
    And what about other nations like Central America that would like to take matters to the Hague and International courts when the $#!+ hits the fan and we admit prohibition was a HOAX and the CIA overthrew their Democracies all for asset forfeitures!? What kind of settlement does THAT add up to? Eventually, the U.N. is going to have to shift its role in the war on drugs and I don’t care how many Samantha Powers we send or foreign aid we spend to cover it up, it’s going to get very ugly for the U.S. if we don’t offer an advanced position on compensation to these contrived civil wars our gangsters in the DOJ keep creating to sell drugs and guns.

    The Supreme Court will hear a case if it is brought directly to a Federal level from a STATE with a good case like COLORADO or KENTUCKY, such as if Kentucky had proceeded with their recent lawsuit against the DEA,DOJ and Attorney General (instead of settling for commercial marketing privileges for hemp… hard to blame them though) … all for stealing their hemp seeds this summer.
    To the contrary of a state, there’s not so much Supreme Court attention for an individual unless:
    1.) The individual sues the DEA from a Federal Court for being unconstitutionally organized under the C.S.Act seeking little to no settlement or collateral and
    2). said individual has a GREAT crowdsourcing fund that would make the ice-bucket challenge look like a lemonade stand. *(Danny Chong, the U.C. San Diego student could have done this, but it would have turned him into a martyr after suffering 4 days detained with no food or water. A $4 million settlement from the DEA seemed appropriate to me).

    Clearly, the preferred way for the Supreme Court and the President for that matter to stand up to unconstitutional scheduling is for a majority of states to file suit against the Federal government. Coming soon to a theater in Washington D.C.; Better slice some Mango’s and get some Trainwreck ready to stay alert; It’s gonna be a good show.
    It beats the Hell out of waiting for Congress to fix what they screwed up in the first place 45 years ago.

  8. Obama,has said,sure i’ll legalize canibus just bring me a bill,so you can’t dog him on that,obama colter stood on stage and said,lower the max min’.
    it’s the old boys in our gov.that are stickin to the rational of Reefer Madness,if they would end the war on pot,and legalize industrial hemp along with mary-jane,tax and regulate,we would get out of debt in no time .
    Nixon started this then quit,we spend Billions trying to find mexican growers,of all male plant(you don’t get high on male just gives you a hightened sense of paranoia,to get high it has to be a second generation female plant,once you get one,it has to be Cloned,to keep up with supply and demand,prohibition has done nothing but put honest hard working citizens behind bars ,slow our economy,and ruin young experimental youth behind bars and ruin lives of honest hard working adults,and ruin there lives to boot.and all the foggies in our government,Love to incarserate our youth and yes the multi racial people too.

  9. Legalize Cannabis and hemp nationally and allow the citizens of each state vote on the right to Legalize Cannabis and hemp and earmark all taxes for college students education fund and pre-K-12 education funding. Time to end this psycho pharmaceutical McCarthyism hive mind approach to Reagan’s 30years trillion dollars war on citizens! Get Proactive and VOTE for legalisation of cannabis and hemp nationally by 2020, I’m betting that The Obama will reschedule cannabis and hemp after the Mid-terms election. And once banks are allowed to do business with those in the industry things will change rapidly. .Get proactive and VOTE in this years Mid-terms election!

  10. Rick Simpson has cured cancer and
    other ailments with Cannabis. His
    medicine starts with 1 pound of
    cannabis rated at 20% THC by volume or
    1/5 gram. So every 5 grams of cannabis
    contains 1 gram of THC. There are 454
    grams in a pound. So 454 divided by 5
    is 90.8 grams of THC per pound of
    Cannabis. By concentrating the
    essential oils , 454 grams plant
    material becomes only 60 grams oil.
    The average person consumes the 60
    grams needed in about 90 days. So
    daily dose contains 1 gram of THC and
    lower amounts of other cannabinoids.

    In theory, one should be able to use a
    vaporizer to extract all essential
    oils on a daily basis. Example; 5
    grams cannabis rated at 20% THC should
    be able to accomplish same dose as
    long as you can extract 100 % of all
    cannabinoids, which can be difficult.
    Easier to vape 6 grams getting 95% of
    all cannabinoids instead of trying to
    scavenge the last 5 – 10 % of what was
    left in the 5 grams to get the full

    U.S. Patent 6630507 U.S. Patent
    6630507 U.S. Patent 6630507 U.S. Patent
    6630507 U.S. Patent 6630507 U.S. Patent 6630507 U.S. Patent 6630507U.S. Patent 6630507 U.S. Patent 6630507U.S. Patent 6630507 U.S. Patent 630507 U.S. Patent 6630507

    ALS awareness has been growing. The
    Ice Bucket Challenge and Rice bucket
    Challenge are making leaps and bounds
    trying to raise this once rare ailment
    known across the land. U.S. Patent
    6630507 is a known cure for
    Neurodegenerative diseases. Been in
    existence since 2/2/01. Yet citizens
    suffer and die. No medical Value my

    Hemp Seed For World Hunger

    The Hemp plant being considered an
    Invasive Spicies is really just saying
    maintenance free. No pesticides or
    chemicals needed. Instead of trying to
    nurse the plant into good health and
    promoting expanding, you will be
    trying to figure out how to restrain
    it. Each hemp stock will produce 1000s
    of 1000s of seeds. Once hemp is
    allowed to be grown we will have more
    seed than we know what to do with. In
    nature it provides the most
    nutritional value out of all plant
    material. Ship a few hundred pounds to
    every starving city, town, village,
    house. Eat some seed and plant the
    rest to have an endless supply.

  11. If cannabis prohibition is truly unconstitutional then any cannabis prohibition case (from simple possession upwards) has the potential to trigger a Supreme court ruling.

  12. @Daniel
    I share your wariness. The current definition of marihuana was so quickly put into Schedule 1 because it is a contemptible definition. When will the SCOTUS acknowledge that it actually shows contempt for our Constitution? When will they recognize that a simple definition actually shows respect for our Constitution? Let us compare.

    The term “marijuana” means all parts of the smoke produced by the combustion of the plant Cannabis sativa L.

    Contemptible and Contemptuous:
    The term “marihuana” means all parts of the plant Cannabis sativa L.,
    whether growing or not; the seeds thereof; the resin extracted from
    any part of such plant; and every compound, manufacture, salt,
    derivative, mixture, or preparation of such plant, its seeds or resin.
    Such term does not include the mature stalks of such plant, fiber
    produced from such stalks, oil or cake made from the seeds of such
    plant, any other compound, manufacture, salt, derivative, mixture,
    or preparation of such mature stalks (except the resin extracted
    therefrom), fiber, oil, or cake, or the sterilized seed of such
    plant which is incapable of germination.

    This year is a good time to call upon our Representatives to make it known to the Court that the current definition must, respectfully, be replaced.

  13. There’s nothing the lower courts can really do because SCOTUS already decided that the federal government can do just about anything they want regarding agriculture under the Commerce Clause.

    Wickard v. Filburn ruined this country.

  14. The term “marijuana” (~merde + guano) is itself contemptuous and insulting. It is a snide anglo mimicry of some hypothetical latino trying to pronounce “Americana” (or “Amerikkkaner”).

    Resemblance to “canis” (man’s best friend, animal) is enough reason to prefer “cannabis” (man’s best friend, vegetable)– as in “cannabis resin” (let us resin together).

    The contemptible quotation as cited by @YearofAction is so blatantly self-contradictory I wondered, have you transcribed that correctly?

    To @jeff’s excellent “Hemp Seed for World Hunger” I would add:

    Hemp Seed for Fire, Drought and Flood Prevention

    Target dry creekbeds, gullies, revines, gulches, valleys where stormwater runoff is a factor. Gather trillions of dead branches and dry litter and pile these (finest particles deepest) in a long mound within each gully or creekbed. Then seed with billions of hemp seeds so that the long roots grip the bio-mass and prevent erosion. After a few seasons of hemp there will be deposits of rich litter which serve as a fertile topsoil for seeding with investive TREE species. This “seek out the depths” strategy will stop water runoff and provide evaporation and rainfall for drought-stricken uplands, and I believe can put an end to desertification on our planet within a few human generations.

  15. Interesting, i never thought of fire,drought, and flood prevention. Land erosion prevention in louisiana. Hemp For Victory!!!!

  16. AWOL is putting it lightly. The decision to legalize marijuana is going to go against the establishment. For 80 years the self serving politicians have manipulated the laws in favor of they’re investments. Now all the deception is coming to light.

  17. It takes the supreme court some time to come around to protecting the rights of the people. The supreme court has had to override crazy racist, homophobic,laws that primarily were instigated by christians and their various political groups hiding behind innocent names like the American Center for Law & Justice, American Values Network, American Family Association,Americans for Truth About Homosexuality,Concerned Women for America,Family Research Council,Family Research Institute,Focus on the Family’s CitizenLink, and a plethora of groups too numerous to list here. The christians use the groups to help them inflict themselves and their delusions on the American public that doesn’t want it.

  18. thiss is to Daniel about second from the top;
    I appreciate the point you make about not equating this with racism or sexism, but it seems to me that on some level this IS a matter of who I am and whether or not I have a choice about this, based on biological principles. I noticed early on that while friends around me seem to relish having a few drinks and occasionally getting drunk, I have never done well with this, not liking the sleepy wobbly waterlogged feeling I get. On the other hand, I do get energized with the right strains of cannabis, and have noticed over the long term that I do better when I smoke quality cannabis on a regular basis. My sleep patterns are more regular, I have fewer pains, I socialize better, I get more done and don’t shy away from tasks that are anxiety provoking or overly tedious. I have a right to consume whatever I need in order to function at my best, and it’s in society’s best interest to allow me to do this.

  19. Good point from @fireweed, “Energized with… cannabis, … I… don’t shy away from tasks that are anxiety provoking or overly tedious.” One key to mastering this “cannabis utilization discipline” method is to multi-task modestly by adding “count” or accounting to the original activity– either by

    (a) mentally counting how many seconds it is taking to do some manual operation each time or

    (b) by thinking or hearing a music track while doing it in order to facilitate establishing a helpful rhythm. And nothing wrong or shameful about singing or talking “to oneself” no matter what ignorant mockers say. The proof is in the performance.

    Bravo, keep functioning At Best, see you in Futureforest.

  20. I think if the controlled substances laws were unconstitutional there would have already been successful litigation.

    It seems that the “commerce clause” interpreted to apply to most everything is something that could be attacked. But that wouldn’t challenge the state laws.

    In Washington they seem to be taking a traditional Democrat approach, i.e. kill the business with taxes. I was in Vancouver last month. There are two legal shops, which I didn’t go to because they were selling 2g for $60 plus sales taxes.

  21. The problem for the courts being AWOL on cannabis rests in the same reason that so many other injustices have raged on much longer than need be. Intellectuals occupying the high courts in the U.S. and other countries know better yet do not assert what is the right thing to do in decisions. They, like the members of the legislative branch, pander to the interests that cause the injustices, that benefit from the injustices to varying degrees and human rights and the rights of man be damned.

    The intellectuals in the high courts have the education and mental faculties to reason through the specious and disingenuous arguments made by the oppressive groups in a society, as do highly educated and cultivated politicians. Sadly, most of the movers and shakers in government positions of power do little to nothing to right the wrongs of the rabble who somehow come into money or manage to get the forces of prejudice to get them elected.

    If the powerful are not willing to sacrifice some of the wealth they gain from enforcing unjust laws and policies and are more concerned about lining their own pockets then that’s how you prolong injustices to varying degrees of severity entire groups of people.

    Boils down to the courts have no fuckin’ balls to stand up for what is right, can’t examine the beneficial scientific evidence for medical uses and recreational relevance and acceptance, but rather must adhere to the words of an incorrect law just as a drive adheres to the directions of a GPS telling them to go somewhere they shouldn’t or can’t. Every once in a while ya hear of a GPS telling people to drive into a canal or somewhere where there is no real road, kinda reminds me of the courts when they know they shouldn’t uphold prohibition, yet do.

  22. So, the right to sodomy is at the heart of liberty and the meaning of the universe, but growing a plant in the privacy of one’s home isn’t? Supreme Court members, please give us a break.

  23. There are two arguments going on here;
    1) The legal viability of equating our right to consume marijuana as an act of privacy to other successful Supreme Court rulings that favored civil rights, and
    2) The scientific evidence of the non-toxic, non-violent nature of a staple cannabis crop providing sustenance, shelter, medicine and fuel that both sustain and make us human… reveals a blatant, unconstitutional violation of human rights by prohibiting and patenting marijuana, whether through the scheduling of the C.S.Act or the D.H.H.S. Patent 3360507.
    The first is an argument by legal comparison, which lawyers have to do to win arguments by comparing their case to previous court decisions.
    The second argument digs into new territory that challenges the principal of patenting and prohibiting a life sustaining plant. The argument goes beyond the legality of prohibition, beyond even the question of whether living organisms or active compounds should be patented, but leads us to asks ourselves how patenting any sustainable source of living proteins, plants or microorganisms is in fact a patent on all life including ourselves?
    At the end of our societal paradigm shift from patented prohibition to open-sourced taxation and regulation of cannabis, one of the questions we’re going to have to answer from the Commerce Clause to our Patenting Law is:
    At what point does a living protein or crop become distinguished from a taxable commodity to a vital symbiotic component of the human body?
    We’re talking about a Supreme Court that has defined corporations as “people,” when the scientific evidence argues that all life on earth are people. Without certain bacteria in our intestines we would die. Every elementary school student has to learn that without plants and algae to produce oxygen, animals would not respirate. Cannabis is so highly coevolved with humankind we share over 200 cannabinoids, complex proteins and terpenoids in a symbiotic endo-exo cannabinoid system. How many living things does it take to make a human being? A healthy human community? If human beings rely on a sustainable crop that can maintain not only our internal homeostasis but the health and sustainability of our whole environment or indeed, our entire planet, then who is not to say that cannabinoids are people too?

  24. Julian, I think I follow what you’re saying and perhaps you might enjoy this:

    All of our laws and ethics are based on the idea that each person has an independent brain that can’t be relied upon to always make the best decisions for the effects of that individual’s thoughts and actions on our democratic society. But do you really think that your mind can fit in a box that small?

  25. Yeah, Those Delusional Psychotic Christian Looneys had to be beat down by the Court to keep their insanity from harming the american public. And people ask me what I have against christians but only the stupid ones because just a little probing will reveal oceans of things they have Fu~ked up in my lifetime and many others before me throughout history.

  26. @todd,
    It’s no accident that cannabis shares more than two-hundred cannabinoids that help operate and stabilize human thought and homeostasis. As Dr. Pollan said at U.C. at Berkley more than a decade ago, ” Cannabis is genetically superior to humans, using its vast chemical coevolutionary adaptability to use our feet and minds to reproduce itself.” In order to produce all of these cannabinoids, cannabis contains more than 25 more protein-coding genes than human beings, as we discovered through mapping the human genome and cannabis. If anything, cannabis patented US!
    The greater point is, the patenting of living proteins leads to black market corruption of real Democracy , favoring a plutocracy run by the owners of these unconstitutional patents. Who own our collective thought and reason? Is to patent 1 life form not to patent them all?
    Only God and all Creation can hold the patent of Life and Creation. All that U.S. Patent 6330507 for cannabinoids as neuroprotectants can accomplish is the archaic punishment and exploitation of the human-cannabis coevolution leading to the immeasurable human tragedy we call Prohibition, just to make a few people wealthy at the expense of the entire planet’s quality of life.
    @Cyndysub, Jesus figured this out 2000 years ago when he took the holy healing oils of Kanneh Bosem designated by Moses in Exodus 30-22 and used them to heal the sick and in prison, (Mathew 25-27).
    Kanneh Bosem contained cannabis.
    -Early Diffusions and Folk History of Hemp, Sulah Benet

  27. Follow up: Moses designated Kanneh Bosem to the Priests and Kings. Jesus, I.e. Christianity, challenged prohibition from the start. Nothing against Moses. Gotta keep those Kings happy. I just thought you should know, Cindy, that if anything I have written so far has made any single point, it’s that we are all MUCH more alike than I alike. (Damn, see? Now you have me quoting Maya Angelou!)

  28. Julian there is no god or jesus you delisional twit so don’t quote any of that bullshit to me as it will be ignored.

  29. Correction, the cannabinoid patent is #6630507!

    The #6330507 (echoing Joh. Brahms’ birthday) is for “Automatic Vehicular Velocity Control Apparatus” and dates from 12/1/2001.

    Yes, @Cyndy, there was a Jesus, he was the first Dogturd Doctor. He had a walking hospital to carry Cannibosom to villages all over Galilee (but Galileo Galilei was born 1500 years later).

    The Gawspel says Jesus spat on some clay, rubbed it in the blind man’s eyes, who picked up his Hammer and Saw. (Early carpentry recruitment.) My theory is that “clay” was actually a special kind of Dogdirt.

    Later, the theory goes, Jesus and Mary Magdalen escaped to southern France and had a daughter who was the first Dogturd Doctor’s Daughter.

    None of which would have been possible without Cannebosom. (Open source copyleft on all the above.)

    PS “Hospital” derives from Haw + Spittle, i.e. the “Haw” is all that Hawt Air preaching
    about Gawd the Fawther Awlmighty etc., the “spittle” is what He mixed with the dawgdirt in the above story.

  30. While sources agree about the identity of four of the five ingredients of anointing oil, the identity of the fifth, “kaneh bosem”, has been a matter of debate.
    But before I get into that;

    @Mexweed: Thanks for the correction for the patent “6630507.” Guess I need to type a little slower.
    @Cyndy; Since you clearly AREN’T ignoring my posts, here is a little more literature for you to “ignore”;

    Identification of kaneh bosem, Prohibition and the Existence of God, by Julian

    The mystery over the 5th ingredient of Kanneh Bosem is a source of some intense debate. The Bible is an historical resource for this important research, whether you believe Jesus was a man, the Son of God, or apparently, according to your version of “reality,” some fictitious figment of the imagination of millions of people. You should try opening your mind up to the history of humanity with a more objective than subjective view of God, people and religion. After all, you may not believe in Creation, but Creation believes and lives in you…
    What if everything that lives and dies was God?
    Being an adult human requires about 2-4 pounds of microbes, bacteria and other microorganisms without which we would die. Much of the genetic material that makes up cannabinoids and microbes has yet to be identified by science. The fact is, we humans are still learning what we are made of, much less what God is made of. I invite the reader to keep an open mind.
    Let’s start simple with symbiosis; Animals clearly have a symbiotic relationship with plants through photosynthesis and respiration. Getting deeper, we can study how all life is codependent on the water, carbon and nitrogen cycles. But the relationship between human endocannabinoids and the cannabinoids found in marijuana formed over millions of years of coevolution is getting increasingly complex every day, especially related to neurological diseases and human homeostasis. In several profound ways, we can’t begin to understand this complex relationship without an inclusive understanding of our planet’s collective, coevolutionary existence and consciousness; Or that is that our Planet itself is a living organism, that breathes and lives in the perfect distance of the sun, with working organs, such as ourselves, embodied by the spirit of Creation that we know as God. From this perspective, human kind is a functional component of a larger organism; God as Creation is now the Sun, the planets and our living Universe. And all Life makes up the organic building blocks of God’s being.

    If we take this model of Creation a bit further, humans and other living things make collective decisions from the peripherals of our environment all the time, and it’s not so far-fetched to understand that our living planet, as a superior organism, “thinks” and “decides,” in kind. This perspective is no different than the “decisions” that microbes and bacteria are making as they symbiotically exist within our guts and flesh.
    When we combine this collective way of thinking with the human relationship to cannabis, we have clearly a unique symbiotic relationship between two organisms with mutual goals and benefits. The result is an awareness of self and Creation unparalleled by other living creatures.

    So we know that cannabis and homo sapiens go back more than 1.7 million years since we speciated from homo erectus in Central Asia.
    But when did prohibition begin? When did humans begin to enforce prohibitive behavior from the most widely cultivated medicine, crop, building material and spiritual communion with Creation on Earth?

    Part of that question takes us back 4000 years ago to Judaism in Egypt in Exodus 30-22. While we are all free to draw our own conclusions over the interpretation of the Old Testament and have ontological arguments about the existence of God, the utility of the Bible for an historical analysis of prohibition of all kinds is unquestionable. While Jesus and his disciples spoke mainly of the prohibition of Christianity, the history of the Holy anointing oil is a study in prohibition itself, and quite likely of the first psychoactive strains of marijuana to reach Northern Africa in the form of Cannabis Indica imported from boats in the Red Sea traveling from India, thousands of years ago.
    Bible indicates that it was an aromatic cane or grass, which was imported from a distant land by way of the spice routes, and that a related plant grows naturally in Israel.[55][56] Several different plants have been identified as the “kaneh bosem”.

    In Sulah Benet’s book “Early Diffusions and Folk Uses of Hemp,” she clearly traces the etymology of the word “Cannabis” through each translation of the bible. She discovers “Kanneh bosem” was derived from an ancient semitic word referring to cannabis. While Exodus imposes strict rules regarding the ingredients of Kanneh-bosem,the reality is that a variety of ingredients with varying psychoactivity may have been used. Perhaps the Jews ran out of olive oil from time to time and had to substitute hemp oil? Perhaps some varieties of anointing oils contained no cannabis at all? It is important to note that whatever amounts or strains of cannabis that were included in Kanneh Bosem were not likely to have near the psychoactive potency that we have created thanks to increase in demand from the last 75 years of prohibition here in the United States.
    The irony is that the prohibition of cannabis could very well have been involved in the birth of the world’s major religion of Judaism, and later with Jesus as he himself a Jew, broke the rules and provided marijuana to the sick and poor during a time when even cannabis sativa was developing more psychoactive strains from its traditional industrial use.
    The remaining question is “How did marijuana’s coevolution with homo sapiens inspire the human perception of ourselves, God and Creation?”

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